Y-DNA SNP testing chart
This Y-DNA SNP testing chart provides comparative information on the Y chromosome SNP tests offered by the major DNA testing companies. For information on the Y-STR tests used for genealogical DNA matching purposes within surname DNA projects see the Y-DNA STR testing chart.
For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.
Currently the chief utility for genetic genealogy lies in ruling out false positive matches for similar Y-STR haplotypes, particularly if the haplotype is close to the modal haplotype for the haplogroup subclade.
Rapid strides in SNP discovery have the potential to bring the deep ancestry time frame forward considerably, perhaps even to the familial level, with more specificity for geographic origins. These have in the past happened through the Walk Through the Y sequencing program at Family Tree DNA under Thomas Krahn. They are currently moving forward through Family Tree DNA's BIG Y test under Dr. David Mittelman and through the Full Genomes Corporation.
This chart is provided for informational purposes only. Additions made upon ISOGG member request. Please submit additions, corrections/updates to .
|Company and product name||23andMe
Version 4 )
|BritainsDNA ScotlandsDNA IrelandsDNA YorkshiresDNA CymruDNAWales
Chromo2 Raw YDNA
| Family Tree DNA
| Full Genomes Corporation
| Genographic Project|
|Date when product first went on sale||November 2010||June 2013||November 2013||Late 2012||July 2012|
|Cost ||$99||$199 (£129)||$575||Y Elite $975 ||$199|
|Analyzed DNA||Autosomal DNA, X-DNA, Y-DNA, mtDNA||Y-DNA ||Y-DNA||Y-DNA, mtDNA||Autosomal DNA, X-DNA, Y-DNA, mtDNA|
|Main purpose of test|| Ancestry: DNA Relatives, global origins, ancestral haplogroups
Health: carrier status, disease risks, drug response (the health reports were suspended in November 2013 by the FDA)
|Patrilineal haplogroup||Y-SNP discovery; patrilineal haplogroup||Y-SNP discovery; patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; Y-STR markers||Anthropological testing: patrilineal and matrilineal haplogroups; biogeographical analysis|
|Level of Y-haplogroup resolution||Basic||Medium||High||Highest available||Basic to Medium|
|Method|| Chip-based genotyping
Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip (v3)
| Chip-based genotyping
Illumina Core customized chip
| Next generation sequencing
Mappable regions: 11-13 million base pairs
Total sequence length: ca. 14 mbp
Read length: 100 base pairs
library insert size: 140.4±88.6 bp 
| Next generation sequencing
Mappable regions: 12-16 million base pairs
Total sequence length: ca. 23 million base pairs.
Read length: 100 base pairs
library insert size: 228.3±91.3 bp 
| Chip-based genotyping |
Illumina HD iSelect
|Method Analysis by YFull ||-||-|| Median depth coverage 47
Length coverage 13,925,100
96 of the 111 STR-panel with good quality
| Median depth coverage 39
Length coverage 22,731,890
98 of the 111 STR-panel with good quality
|Results for currently known Y-SNPs||2,329 variants covered; many are no calls||14,497 variants covered||76% of 55,000 known SNPs covered ||97% of 55,000 known SNPs covered ||12,065 variants covered; some no calls|
|Results for private Y-SNPs (novel Y-variants)||Not possible with chip-genotyping||Not possible with chip-genotyping||Average count 54 ||Average count 66 ||Not possible with chip-genotyping|
|Format of results||A zip .txt file with a list of all the SNPs tested and the genotype for each position. The genome reference positions are included. A raw data browser is also provided.||A Word file with a list of all the SNPs for which the customer has tested positive. A .CSV file containing a complete listing of all the Y-SNPs tested and the genotype for each allele is also provided. The genome reference positions are not given.||VCF, BED, and BAM files||A rar archive of 9 files which can be converted into a spreadsheet format. The files include a list of results for all the Y-SNPs tested, a list of private SNPs, a haplogroup compare file and a variant compare file, Y-STR and mtDNA. The raw data (in the form of a BAM file) is available on request. See the guest blog post by Itaï Perez for sample reports.||A .CSV file containing a complete listing of all the Y-SNPs tested and the genotype for each allele. The genome reference positions are not given.|
|Availability of single Y-SNPs||No||No||Select from catalog of approx 3,600 SNPs at $39 per SNP. Group administrators can submit requests for new SNPs to be considered for inclusion in the catalog||Not at this time, but reportedly in development. Custom SNPs can be ordered from YSEQ at $35 per SNP.||Yes, if free transfer to FTDNA is used|
|Non Y-SNP results and reports included in the test|| 577,382 autosomal SNPs, 19,487 X chromosome SNPs, 3154 mt SNPs
health and ancestry reports included
|No||Y-STRs and mtDNA sequence included in BAM files but results are not reported though can be obtained by purchasing a third-party analysis||Over 300 Y-STRs (a list of alleles for all the Y-STRs tested), and mtDNA sequence included provided in two separate files showing differences from the CRS and the RSRS.|| 126,307 autosomal SNPs, 3803 X chromosome SNPs, 3281 mt SNPs|
Ancestry reports included
|Shipping charges||$14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the US; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See shipping DNA kits for further info.||Included in the cost of the kit in the UK; £13 for the Republic of Ireland (includes return courier service)||$9.95 for USA and international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits)||$25 for the US; $39 for international orders||None for the US; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries|
|International product availability||56 countries||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide||Worldwide|
|Time from receiving the kit to release of results||6-8 weeks||6-8 weeks||8 weeks||Because of forwarding to the external laboratory and delays at the lab, sometimes several months||Up to 10 weeks|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a minimum of 25 years||No, but the option might be added in the future||Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used|
|Projects supported||No||No||Yes||Not at this time but reportedly in development||Yes. if the free transfer to FTDNA is used|
|Project/crowd funding||No||No||Yes (Contact customer service for help with group project orders.)||No||No (was announced to be made available for FTDNA project order)|
|Online community or forum||Active online community for 23andMe members, including demo accounts||No||Public FTDNA forums||Results can be discussed in the private Full Genomes Facebook group||No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the website for others to view, so add your contact information to them.|
|Sponsored public database||No||No||Partial||No||No|
|Additional DNA testing options available from this company||No||Yes, available as optional add ons at an additional charge: mtDNA haplogroup testing, biogeographical analysis, chromosome painting, principal component analysis, and red hair test||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and autosomal genome wide scans||No||No|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon||James Wilson, Angelika Kritz, Katie Barnes||Connie Bormans, David Mittelman||Spencer Wells|
|Advisory board and consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Not applicable||Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Spencer Wells||Greg Magoon||Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates||The Moffat Partnership Directors include Alistair Moffat and James Wilson||Gene by Gene Managing partners Bennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld||Privately held|| National Geographic|
is a non-profit scientific and educational society
|Lab(s) used|| National Genetics Institute
(a subsidiary of LabCorp), Los Angeles, California
|Source Bioscience, Nottingham, England||Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas||BGI Hongkong||Family Tree DNA Genomics Center, Houston, Texas|
|Method for collecting the sample||Saliva sample (about 1 cc)||Saliva sample||Cheek swab||Saliva sample or cheek swab||Cheek swab|
|Payment methods||VISA, Mastercard, Discover, American Express||VISA, Mastercard, American Express||Credit Cards, Paypal, checks||Credit Cards, Paypal, checks||Credit Cards, Paypal|
1390 Shorebird Way
| The Moffat Partnership Limited
St Dunstans House
Melrose TD6 9RU
| Family Tree DNA
1445 North Loop West
| Full Genomes Corporation Inc
2275 Research Blvd
| The Genographic Project|
1145 17th St. N.W.
Washington, D. C.
|Phone number||Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||0845 872 7634||713-868-1438||All communications are via e-mail||888-557-4450 (in the US or Canada) or 713-868-1807|
|Year founded||2006||2011 (2004)||2000||2012||2005|
- v4 includes SNPs that our researchers use to assign genetic ancestry using autosomal DNA markers as well as variants in both mitochondrial DNA and in the Y chromosome. "We will likely start using the chip in the next few weeks." November 18, 2013: http://blog.23andme.com/news/23andmes-new-custom-chip/
- The companies now trading as BritainsDNA, ScotlandsDNA, IrelandsDNA, CymruDNAWales and YorkshiresDNA were formerly known as Ethnoancestry.
- Family Tree DNA also processes tests for a number of affiliate companies: African DNA, iGENEA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin and DNA Worldwide. Participants who join Family Tree DNA's database from these companies will have kit numbers that begin with 'A' from African DNA, 'E' from iGENEA, 'M' from DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, and 'U' from DNA Worldwide. National Geographic Genographic kit transfers begin with 'N'. Family Tree DNA acquired DNA Heritage in April 2011. DNA Heritage customers were given the option of transferring their results to the FTDNA database. DNA Heritage kit numbers begin with the letter 'H'.
- Prices checked 25 Oct 2013; check company websites for current prices.
- $299 when interpretation and narrative report are included. May be purchased in combination with other products and reports. The company also offers a standard Y-SNP test for $265. This test looks at 300 Y-DNA SNPs and includes a narrative report.
- information in this table refers to Y Elite, lower resolution Y Prime was introduced in July 2014. This costs $650 (before priced at $625 with an introductory price at launch of $599, lab/provider is Omega Bioservices in Norcross, Georgia)
- mtDNA, autosomal DNA available at additional cost
- Petrone J. Family Tree DNA Expands beyond Array-based Offerings with New Y Chromosome Sequencing Service ($) GenomeWeb BioArray News, 12 November 2013
- Petrone J. Family Tree DNA's NGS-Based 'BigY' Service to Inform Future Generations of Ancestry Testing Chips ($) GenomeWeb BioArray News, 18 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.
- FGC vs BigY, FGC_Advantage_January2014_release rev2.pdf, by FGC.
- Magoon G. Facebook message 2013-10-18: "The 12-16 mbp figure is a rough estimate of the number of sites where we can confidently (>~95%) identify novel SNP variants that are free from various issues that give rise to false positives."
- FGC vs BigY, FGC_Advantage_January2014_release rev2.pdf, by FGC.
- Vadim Urasin, 17 Sep. 2014 in the YFull Facebook group
- A form is now available in the FTDNA GAP (under Genetic reports/Y-DNA SNP) where admins can submit their requests. Alternatively this link can be used (admins must be logged in): https://gap.familytreedna.com/ydna-snp-report.aspx
- Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/ftdna/shipping-dna-tests-to-international-destinations/. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
- Some surname and haplogroup projects list SNP results for participants.
- Editorial Staff. "Who's Who At Family Tree DNA". Family Tree DNA. Gene by Gene. http://www.familytreedna.com/about.aspx.
- Beta-testing is also being done at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) but they have not as yet been confirmed as a sequencing provider.
- The company was founded in 2004 as Ethnoancestry, and relaunched as ScotlandsDNA in 2011. The trade names BritainsDNA, IrelandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA were added in 2012.
- 23andMe reviews
- BritainsDNA Chromo 2 reviews
- Family Tree DNA Big Y reviews
- Full Genomes reviews
- Genographic Project Geno 2.0 reviews
- Before You Buy
- Choosing a DNA testing company
- Free DNA tests
- List of Y-DNA haplogroup projects
- SNP testing
- Surname DNA projects
- Y chromosome DNA tests
- Y-DNA STR testing chart
- Y-DNA tools
- ISOGG phylogenetic tree
- ISOGG SNP Compendium Spreadsheet compiled by Dave Reynolds
- The minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y-chromosome from Phylotree
- ISOGG Ybrowse Human Y-chromosome browser
- Y-Tree An interactive version of the current Y Chromosome Consortium's phylogenetic tree and the Family Tree DNA draft Y-chromosome tree
- The YFull version of the Y-SNP tree
- A confusion of SNPs by Debbie Kennett, Cruwys News blog, 16 November 2013.
- The future of comprehensive Y testing is here by Kelly Wheaton. Lesson 15: Beginners' Guide to Genetic Genealogy
- Full Genomes launches Y Prime - a new Y chromosome sequencing product by Debbie Kennett, Cruwys News blog, 26 July 2014
- Introduction to the BigY A white paper from Family Tree DNA, 29 August 2014.
23andMe, BritainsDNA, DNA Ancestry & Family Origin, Family Tree DNA, Full Genomes Corporation, iGENEA, IrelandsDNA, National Geographic Genographic, ScotlandsDNA and YorkshiresDNA are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.