23andMe

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23andMe, Inc.
Type Private
Industry Biotechnology
Founded April 2006
Founder(s) Anne Wojcicki and Linda Avey
Headquarters Mountain View, California, USA
Key people Board of Directors: Anne Wojcicki (CEO), Andy Page (President), Esther Dyson, Patrick Chung (NEA). [1]
Products Genetic test
Services Genetic testing, Online genome service
Owner(s) Investors like Google, NEA, MPM. [2]
Website www.23andMe.com


23andMe is a privately held Personal genomics and biotechnology company based in Mountain View, California, that claims to be developing new methods and technologies that will enable consumers to understand their own genetic information. The company is named for the 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human cell. [3]

Main categories on the corporate website: The Spittoon (blog), Ancestry (Relative Finder, global origins, ancestral lineage), Health (carrier status, disease risks, drug response), how it works (spit kit), Research. [4]

Contents

Products

There is one DNA test available wich provides almost 1M SNPs of the human genome with a Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip (Version 3 test / v3).

The pricing for the Personal Kit is $99 and includes the Personal Genome Service® (Ancestry, Health, Research). Shipping costs are $15 in the USA and international shipping arround $80 for european countries (abt. 140 € total cost). [5] See also Shipping DNA kits.

The corporate website under sign up provides a free demo account to check the product features.

Ancestry / Genetic Genealogy

For genetic genealogists the following DNA test results are interesting:

  • Autosomal DNA + X-DNA: very good data to trace deep and recent ancestry and find relatives is provided. The test in v3 delivers about 956,000 SNPs on the 22 autosomes and the X-chromosome. This is about 10% of the existing human SNPs [6] and currently a very good coverage.
  • Paternal line - Y chromosome (Y-DNA): basic data for surname projects (paternal clans) and male related prehistory migrations is provided. About 2,000 SNPs are tested and the result mapped to a haplogroup tree with medium resolution (corresponds largely with the outdated YCC tree of 2008). External tools can help to update the Y-DNA haplogroup nomenclature, but can hardly increase the resolution of v3 results.
  • Maternal line - mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA): basic data for female related prehistory migrations is provided. About 2,500 SNPs (~15% of mtDNA) are tested and the result mapped to a haplogroup tree with good resolution. External tools can update the assignment to a mtDNA haplogroup and sometimes increase the resolution of v3 results.

All DNA test results can be downloaded as raw data. The various file formats (v2, v3) are widely recognized by external tools.

Scientists and Genealogists

Leadership Team: Anne Wojcicki (CEO and Co-Founder), Andy Page (President), Brian T. Naughton PhD (Founding Scientist, Haplogroup Tree Mutation Mapper), Chris Castro (VP Communications), Joanna L. Mountain PhD (Senior Director of Research), Jonathan Ward (VP Strategic Alliances), Judith Blunt (Director of Regulatory Affairs and Quality Assurance), Neil Rothstein (VP Marketing), Steve Lemon (VP Product and Engineering), Uta Francke MD (Senior Medical Director), Jeffrey D. Pollard MD (Director of Medical Affairs). [7]

Editorial Advisors: Itsik Pe'er, Peter A. Underhill (Y-DNA, M-SNPs). [8]

Scientific Advisory Board: Serafim Batzoglou PhD, George Church PhD, Michael Eisen PhD, Marcus Feldman PhD, Stanley Nelson PhD, Jonathan Pritchard PhD, Uta Francke MD. [9]

Ancestry Ambassadors: CeCe Moore (Your Genetic Genealogist), Ann Turner (ISOGG Y-Tree), Larry Vick, Shannon Christmas, Tim Janzen (ISOGG Y-Tree), Andrea Badger. [10]

External tools, further investigation of raw data

With the raw data a variety of tools can be used to explore your DNA further.

Autosomal DNA (atDNA) and full genome

mtDNA

Y-DNA

  • Y-DNA SNP identifying: YDNA SNPs Comparison Project (Adriano Squecco, daver.info) since v2 new SNP have been found, but with v3 and in 2012 the potential of new discoveries seems low.

Other and help

Reviews

Ancestry Composition Reviews

Press & Media

23andMe has been featured on Finding Your Roots with Henry Louis Gates Jr., Oprah Winfrey television show, The New York Times, The Economist, San Jose Mercury News, San Francisco Chronicle and has been covered by other high-profile media groups.

History

Focused on genetic genealogy topics.

  • April 2006: 23andMe was founded by Anne Wojcicki and Linda Avey.
  • Nov. 2007: The initial cost of 23andMe's product for US-consumers was $999 (580,000 SNPs using Illumina technology).[11]
  • Jan. 2008: the service was extended to Canada and most countries in Europe.
  • Sep. 2008: the test was updated from V1 to V2 and the cost reduced to $399. This was possible with the Illumina HumanHap550-Quad+ chip, capable to read about 600,000 SNPs (expanded range) from all Chromosomes and the mtDNA.[12]
  • Sep. 2009: Co-founder Linda Avey leaves 23andMe to focus on Alzheimer's Research. [13]
  • Nov. 2010: 23andMe introduced an alternative pricing option of $199 with a required one-year subscription of $5 a month. The newly introduced V3 test reads almost 1,000,000 SNPs with the Illumina OmniExpress Plus customized chip (base OmniExpress 733,202 SNPs). For both ancestral lineages (mitochondrial DNA and Y-DNA) over 2000 SNPs are recorded making possible Haplogroup Discovery of over 750 maternal lineages and over 500 different paternal lineages.[14][15]
  • March 2011: the pricing was changed to $99 with $9/month (for at least one year). This subscription would provide subscribers with updates on discoveries made about their DNA over time. A single-fee payment of $399 without the commitment continues also to be available.
  • June 2011: On the SCGS-Meeting 23andMe stated to have tested about 75,000 individuals.[16]
  • June 15, 2011: 23andMe announced in three and a half years of service their database has grown to include the DNA data of more than 100,000 people. Other statistics include 60,000 users had completed on average 10 surveys, 100,000 community forum posts, more than 60,000 pairs of relatives have been discovered, 57% of 23andMe users are male, 47% share their data with other users, and 12% have multiple ancestries.[17]
  • Sep. 27, 2011: 23andMe announced at Health 2.0 in San Francisco a limited enrollment pilot program for current members called Exome 80x. The test will measure 50 million base pairs of the participant's exome at a cost of $999.[18] This new test will not be good for ancestry as the test focuses on the exome and will not measure much of mitochondrial or Y-chromosome DNA.
  • Nov. 2011 technical status info: v3-only raw data download has 960,520 SNPs (1,764 for Y-DNA and 2,459 for mtDNA). Relative Finder looks for segments of DNA from a common ancestor (IBD = Identical By Descent). Segments of at least 7 cM (centiMorgans) and at least 700 SNPs are reported. Additional segments need to be at least 5 cM and have at least 700 SNPs.[19]
  • Dec. 2011 / Jan. 2012: major discussions about changes of terms for expired PGS subscription customers. Together with customer wishes for more ancestry and genealogical functions a "Ancestry Ambassador Group" was founded, to further the interests of the genetic genealogy community and to promote autosomal DNA testing for genealogy. Members are CeCe Moore, Dr. Ann Turner, Larry Vick, Dr. Tim Janzen, Andrea Badger and Shannon Christmas. [20]
  • May 10, 2012: The subscription model was eliminated and a single $299 price introduced. Before: $99 with required 1-year subscription to 23andMe's Personal Genome Service® billed at $9 per month (incl. updates on discoveries made about DNA over time). There was also a Prepaid option for $207 which includes the subscription for 1 year. The third option was a lifetime subscription for $399. [21]
  • December 11, 2012: Ancestry Composition (Ancestry Painting 2) released with much more detail comparing to 22 reference populations builded upon customers and public data sets.[22] Company has more than 180,000 customers and sets growth goal of one million customers: single price drops to $99.
  • April 25, 2013: 23andMe has genotyped more than 250,000 customers.[23]
  • May 2013; The ancestral composition of 23andMe's database is as follows: about 65% are of northern European ancestry; 6% African American; 5% eastern Asian; 4.5% Latino; 3.7% southern European; 2.6% South Asian.[24]

Funding, Investment

The company has received Series A, B, C and D funding from several prominent technology and health science companies, strategic angel investors and venture capital firms: [25]

Google's co-founder Sergey Brin is married to the co-founder and CEO of 23andMe Anne Wojcicki.

Videos

  • 23andMe Medical Innovations Briefing A lecture by Anne Wojcicki of 23andMe. She discusses research into human genomes, the history of 23andMe, how it works, how it has helped patients, and plans for the future. The lecture was filmed at a breakfast briefing at The Royal Society of Medicine in London on 7th May 2013.

See also

External links

References

  1. Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/board/
  2. Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/ and Corporate Fact Sheet Sep. 2011
  3. Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/
  4. Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/
  5. Dec. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/store/cart/ (Retr. 11 Dec. 2012)
  6. "International HapMap Project Overview". International HapMap Project. 2012-02-22. http://www.genome.gov/10001688. Retrieved 2012-03-05. 
  7. Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/leadership/
  8. Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/editorial/
  9. Dec. 2013: https://www.23andme.com/about/advisors/
  10. Jan. 2012: http://spittoon.23andme.com/2012/01/22/new-23andme-ancestry-ambassadors-group/
  11. Baertlein, Lisa (2007-11-20). "Google-backed 23andMe offers $999 DNA test". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/tech/webguide/internetlife/2007-11-20-23andme-launch_N.htm. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  12. "Press Release: 23andMe Democratizes Personal Genetics - September 9, 2008". https://www.23andme.com/about/press/20080909b/. 
  13. Kara Swisher (2009-09-04). "23andMe Co-Founder Linda Avey Leaves Personal Genetics Start-Up to Focus on Alzheimer's Research". AllThingsD.com. https://allthingsd.com/20090904/23andme-co-founder-linda-avey-leaves-start-up-to-focus-on-alzheimers-research/. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  14. "Sale or no Sale - Dr. James M. Owston, December 2, 2011". https://www.23andme.com/you/community/thread/10470/. ; FAQ 23andme: How does 23andMe genotype my DNA? Y-Chromosome Genome Comparison Errata for 23andME Data Compilation, 5 February 2011
  15. "Our Service: Ancestry Features / techniques". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/ancestry/techniques/. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  16. "News from 23andMe and FTDNA at SCGS 2011 Jamboree - June 12, 2011". http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/2011/06/news-from-23andme-and-ftdna-at-scgs.html. 
  17. "23andMe Database Surpasses 100,000 Users". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/about/press/23andme_database_100000k_users/. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
  18. "Exome 80x". 23andMe. 2011-09-27. https://www.23andme.com/exome/. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  19. "How does Relative Finder calculate my matches?". 23andMe. https://www.23andme.com/you/faqwin/rfcalculation/. Retrieved 7 December 2011. 
  20. http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/2012/01/your-genetic-genealogist-appointed-to.html
  21. http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com/2012/05/23andme-eliminates-subscription-model.html
  22. http://dienekes.blogspot.it/2012/12/23andme-ancestry-composition.html
  23. 23andMe Aims to Close Genetics Literacy Gap Among Americans in Celebration of DNA Day. 23andMe press release, 25 April 2013.
  24. Mountain J. "DNA and Family History: Getting the most out of 23andMe’s genealogical features." Handout for a lecture at the Southern California Genealogical Society's 2013 Jamboree. Accessed 1 June 2013.
  25. Apr. 2012: https://www.23andme.com/about/corporate/ and Corporate Fact Sheet Sep. 2011
  26. "Google invests in genetics firm". BBC News. 2007-05-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6682451.stm. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  27. Dec. 2009: http://techcrunch.com/2009/12/23/23andme-funding/ and http://pulse2.com/2009/12/24/23andme-raises-28-million-in-series-b/
  28. June 2009: http://www.genomeweb.com/dxpgx/google-invests-another-26m-23andme and http://money.cnn.com/2009/06/18/technology/google_23andMe/
  29. https://www.secondmarket.com/company/23andme (acc. Apr. 2012)
  30. January 2011: https://www.23andme.com/about/press/20110107/
  31. https://www.23andme.com/about/press/12_11_2012/


GNU head This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "23andMe".