Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart
Autosomal DNA testing for genetic genealogy purposes is provided by the following four companies: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, BritainsDNA, Family Tree DNA and the Genographic Project. For background material on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy and Choosing a DNA testing company.
For guidelines on DNA testing see the Genetic genealogy standards.
|This autosomal DNA testing comparison chart has been compiled by ISOGG member Tim Janzen. The chart is provided for informational purposes only. Additions made upon ISOGG member request.|
Please submit additions, corrections/updates to or preferably, .
|Company||23andMe||Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test||Ancestry.com's AncestryDNA test||National Geographic Genographic Project Geno 2.0 test||Chromo2 test|
|Primary purpose for which the test was designed||Medical
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
|Population Genetics Research
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal)
Personal Ancestry (Y-DNA)
Personal Ancestry (mtDNA)
|Personal Ancestry (Autosomal)|
Personal Ancestry (Y-DNA)
Personal Ancestry (mtDNA)
|Website||www.23andme.com; www.23andMe.ca; www.23andme.co.uk||www.familytreedna.com||http://dna.ancestry.com||https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com||www.britainsdna.com; www.cymrudnawales.com; www.irelandsdna.com; www.scotlandsdna.com|
|Price (as of 12 April 2015)||$99 for the lifetime of the platform in the U.S. (ancestry only; health reports discontinued in November 2013); CAD $199 or £125 for health and ancestry reports (Canada and UK only at this time)||$99 (£65) for the lifetime of the platform||$99 in the U.S.; £99 in the UK and Ireland (an Ancestry subscription is required to access some features)||$199.95 (£132)||$279 (£169) for the autosomal test only (All My Ancestry); $399 (£250) for the autosomal, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial DNA combined test (Chromo Complete)|
|Shipping charges||$14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the U.S.; CAD $19.95 for Canada; included in the cost of the test for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See Shipping DNA kits for further info.||$9.95 for the USA and for international orders (prepaid return postage is included for US kits) ((£6.55 UK)||$9.95 per kit; £20 UK and Ireland and £10 for additional kits (includes prepaid return postage)||None for the U.S.; $10 for Canada; $20 (£13) for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries||None|
|International product availability||56 countries||Worldwide||United States, United Kingdom and Ireland only at this time||Worldwide||Worldwide|
|Method for collecting the DNA sample||saliva sample (about 1 cc)||cheek swab||saliva sample (about 1/2 cc)||cheek swab||saliva sample|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a minimum of 25 years||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used||Yes, indefinitely|
|Means of contacting people who share matching segments||Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives or Ancestry Finder; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches||E-mail addresses of all matches are available||Contact can be made through Ancestry.com’s messaging system||No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the web site for others to view, so add your contact information to them.||No|
|Average responsiveness of matches||Fairly low||Medium to Fairly high||Medium||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Average level of genealogical knowledge of matches||Fairly low||Fairly high||Medium||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|GEDCOM file upload allowed||Yes||Yes||Link is created to Ancestry.com pedigree charts||No||No|
|Upload of raw data file allowed from other companies||No||Yes, but 23andMe Version 3 files (c. November 2010 to November 2013) and Ancestry.com files only||No||No||No|
|Upload of raw data file allowed by GEDmatch into the GEDmatch database||Yes||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|SNP chip used for testing||Customized Illumina chip||Illumina OmniExpress||Illumina OmniExpress||Customized Illumina iSelect HD chip developed in collaboration with Family Tree DNA and Eran Elhaik at Johns Hopkins University||Customized Illumina Core chip|
|Number of autosomal SNPs tested||577,382||708,092||682,549||126,307||290,169|
|Number of Y chromosome SNPS||2329||None||885 (labeled as chromosome 24)||12,064||14,497|
|Number of X chromosome SNPS||19,487||18,091||17,604 (labeled as chromosome 23), plus 440 SNPs labeled as chromosome 25 that are either from chromosome X or from the pseudoautosomal regions of the Y chromosome||3803||None|
|Number of mitochondrial DNA SNPS||3154||None||None||11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome||3142|
|Number of people in the database (as of 12 April 2015)||over 900,000||About 140,000||over 700,000||200,196||over 10,000|
|Source for number of people in the database||23andMe website||personal estimate by Tim Janzen||Timothy Sullivan, 2015 Personalized Medicine World Conference, 28 Jan 2015||17 Mar 2015 e-mail from Miguel Vilar||personal estimate by Tim Janzen|
|Medically related SNP data included in data||Yes||Yes, but about 3000 medically related SNPs have been removed||Yes||No||Yes|
|Download of raw data file allowed||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Information about the matching segments shared with customers and available for download||Yes (if the match is willing to share genomes)||Yes for all matches||No||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Chromosome browser available for comparison of shared segments||Yes, using the Family Inheritance: Advanced tool||Yes, using the Chromosome Browser tool||No||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Chromosome browser can be adjusted to different thresholds for matching segments||No||Yes, with thresholds of 1 cM, 3 cMs, 5 cMs, and 10 cMs||No||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Maximum number of comparisons that can be done at a time using the chromosome browser||5||5||None||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Criteria for matching segments||7 cMs and at least 700 SNPs for first segment; 5 cMs and 700 SNPs for additional segments and for people you are sharing with||7.69 cMs and at least 500 SNPs for the first segment and a total of at least 20 cMs (including the shorter matching segments between 1 cM and 7 cMs)||5 cMs for the first segment||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information about the start and stop positions of matching segments||Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest millionth base pair in Family Inheritance: Advanced and nearest hundred thousandth pair in Ancestry Finder||Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest complete block of 100 SNPs||Not Provided||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information reported about the lengths of matching segments||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest tenth of a cM||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a cM||Not provided||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information provided regarding the number of SNPs in each matching segment||Yes||Yes||No||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information about matching segments on the X chromosome reported||Yes||Yes||No||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Criteria for matching segments on the X chromosome||For half-IBD segments: Male vs male: 200 SNPs, 1 cM; male vs female: 600 SNPs, 6 cMs; female vs female: 1200 SNPs, 6 cMs; For full-IBD segments: 500 SNPs, 5 cMs||1 cM and 500 SNPs for both males and females; matches must already meet the autosomal DNA matching criteria||Unknown||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Information about mitochondrial DNA matches reported||No||No||No||Yes, for those who have completed their profile about their matrilineal ancestry||No|
|Integrated genealogy database available to which customers may link||No, but Geni.com tree is on the MyHeritage website||Yes, to FamilySearch Family Tree||No, but OneWorldTree is on the Ancestry.com web site||No||No|
|Biogeographical ancestry analysis||Yes, using Ancestry Composition, Global Similarity, Ancestry Finder features||Yes, using the My Origins feature||Yes, using the Genetic Ethnicity feature||Yes, using the "Who Am I" feature||Yes, using Global Connections, Population Percentage, and Chromosome Painting features|
|Chromosomes painted according to ethnic or regional ancestry as part of the biogeographical ancestry analysis||Yes, using Ancestry Composition's Chromosome View||No||No||No||Yes, using Chromosome Painting|
|Overall accuracy and sophistication of the biogeographical ancestry analysis rated on a 1-10 scale with 10 being excellent and 1 being poor||Overall rating: 7
The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosone. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country.
|Overall rating: 3.5
The MyOrigins analysis is much improved over FTDNA's previous Population Finder analysis. However, it still lacks specificity, particularly for Europe. No chromosome painting feature is available.
|Overall rating: 3
The Genetic Ethnicity Summary consistently overestimates the Central European and Scandinavian ancestral components for people whose ancestors were from the British Isles. The ancestral component from the British Isles is overestimated for people whose ancestors were from continental Europe. Overall, the European ancestry predictions tend to be inaccurate.
|Overall rating: 2.5
Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. The two closest reference populations are given for each person who is tested. However, these predictions, particularly the second closest reference population, are frequently inaccurate.
|Overall rating: 3.5|
The All My Ancestry feature provides the percentages of one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of about 3000 to 6000 years ago. Chromosome painting and a detailed principal components analysis by region of the world is also provided. The number of autosomal SNPs available for analysis is somewhat limited, which reduces the specificity of the biogeographical ancestry analysis relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition.
|Phased data used for determining matching segments||No||No||Yes||Not applicable||Not applicable|
|Phased segments linked to specific ancestors||No||No||No||No||No|
|Average number of autosomal SNPs with discrepant data using two parent/one child trio datasets||About 335||About 210 to 220||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|Link can be made to confirm known relationships||Yes||Yes||No||No||No|
|Special features||Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Finder, Neanderthal Ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry tool, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with||Customers can integrate their matches with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results. Family Finder matrix is available for project administrators.||Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches' family trees||There are approximately 75,000 Ancestry Informative Markers from about 450 populations around the world that are included on the test. About 10,000 of the Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations. Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestral percentages are provided.||Most of the 14,497 Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations.|
|Online Community Forum||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon||Connie Bormans||Ken Chahine, Catherine Ball, Scott Woodward, Jake Byrnes||Spencer Wells, Miguel Vilar||Jim Wilson, Angelika Kritz, Katie Barnes|
|Outside consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd||Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn||Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan||Unknown|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates||Gene by Gene||As of January 2013 owned by the European equity firm Permira||National Geographic Society
a Non-profit scientific and educational society
|The Moffat Partnership Directors include Alistair Moffat and James Wilson|
|Additional information about the test||See:||See:||See:
|Additional DNA testing options available from the company||No, not at this time||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR and SNP testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and complete genome testing||No, not at this time (Ancestry previously offered Y-DNA and mtDNA tests but this option was discontinued in June 2014)||No, not at this time||No, not at this time|
|Address||1390 Shorebird Way, Mountain View, CA 94043||1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX 77008||360 W 4800 N Provo, UT 84604||1145 17th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20036-4688||Renwick Suite A, High St., Melrose, Scotland, United Kingdom, TD6 9PB|
|Phone Number||Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||713-868-1438||800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia)||888-557-4450 (in the U. S. or Canada) or 713-868-1807||0845-872-7634|
|Date product launched||November 19, 2007||February 16, 2010||May 3, 2012||July 25, 2012||June 14, 2013|
- 23andMe reviews
- Ancestry DNA reviews
- Family Finder reviews
- Genographic Project Geno 2.0 reviews
- Comparing Admixture Test Results Across Companies - My Review by CeCe Moore, 18 December 2012
- Autosomal testing comparison by Roberta Estes, 3 January, 2013
- Who do they think I am? A look at four autosomal analyses by Jim Owston, 6 March 2013.
- My autosomal DNA quandary by Randy Seaver, Genea-Musings 22 August 2013.
- Five DNA tests, 100% me, and back to square one by Sarah Abel, Anthropology While White blog, 5 September 2014.
- Admixture analyses
- Autosomal DNA
- Autosomal DNA statistics
- Autosomal DNA tools
- Before You Buy
- Choosing a DNA testing company
- DNA Relatives
- Family Finder
- Shipping DNA kits
- Understanding genetic ancestry testing
- Comparison DTC DNA tests 01/2013
- Editorial Staff. "Shipping DNA tests worldwide". Family Tree DNA Learning Center. Gene by Gene. https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/ftdna/shipping-dna-tests-to-international-destinations/. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and National Geographic Genographic are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.