Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart
Autosomal DNA testing for genetic genealogy purposes is provided by the following four companies: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and the Genographic Project. For background material on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy.
|This autosomal DNA testing comparison chart has been compiled by ISOGG member Tim Janzen. The chart is provided for informational purposes only. Additions made upon ISOGG member request.|
Please submit additions, corrections/updates to or preferably, .
|Company||23andMe||Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test||Ancestry.com's AncestryDNA test||National Geographic Genographic Project Geno 2.0 test|
|Primary purpose for which the test was designed||Medical
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
|Population Genetics Research|
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal)
Personal Ancestry (Y-DNA)
Personal Ancestry (mtDNA)
|Price (as of 23 Mar 2014)||$99 for the lifetime of the platform||$99 for the lifetime of the platform||$99 in the U.S. only (an Ancestry subscription is required to access some features)||$199.95|
|Shipping charges||$14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the U.S.; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See Shipping DNA kits for further info.||$5 for the USA and $7 for international orders||$9.95 per kit||None for the U.S.; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries|
|International product availability||56 countries||Worldwide||United States only at this time||Worldwide|
|Method for collecting the DNA sample||saliva sample (about 1 cc)||cheek swab||saliva sample (about 1/2 cc)||cheek swab|
|DNA sample storage||Yes, indefinitely||Yes, for a minimum of 25 years||No||Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used|
|Means of contacting people who share matching segments||Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives or Ancestry Finder; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches||E-mail addresses of all matches are available||Contact can be made through Ancestry.com’s messaging system||No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the web site for others to view, so add your contact information to them.|
|Average responsiveness of matches||Fairly low||Medium to Fairly high||Medium||Not applicable|
|Average level of genealogical knowledge of matches||Fairly low||Fairly high||Medium||Not applicable|
|GEDCOM file upload allowed||Yes||Yes||Link is created to Ancestry.com pedigree charts||No|
|Upload of raw data file allowed from other companies||No||Yes, but 23andMe Version 3 files and Ancestry.com files only||No||No|
|Upload of raw data file allowed by GEDmatch into the GEDmatch database||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|SNP chip used for testing||Customized Illumina chip||Illumina OmniExpress||Illumina OmniExpress||Customized Illumina iSelect HD chip developed in collaboration with Family Tree DNA and Eran Elhaik at Johns Hopkins University|
|Number of autosomal SNPs tested||577,382||708,092||682,549||126,307|
|Number of Y chromosome SNPS||2329||None||885 (labeled as chromosome 24)||12,064|
|Number of X chromosome SNPS||19,487||18,091||17,604 (labeled as chromosome 23), plus 440 SNPs labeled as chromosome 25 that are either from chromosome X or from the pseudoautosomal regions of the Y chromosome||3803|
|Number of mitochondrial DNA SNPS||3154||None||None||11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome|
|Number of people in the database (as of 23 Mar 2014)||Over 650,000||About 85,000||About 300,000||136,317 kits have been sold (660,701 - 524,384)|
|Source for number of people in the database||Anne Wojcicki, Future of Genomics Medicine Conference, 7 Mar 2014||personal estimate by Tim Janzen||Ken Chahine, RootsTech Conference, 8 Feb 2014||Genographic Project website, 23 Mar 2014|
|Medically related SNP data included in data||Yes||No||Yes||No|
|Download of raw data file allowed||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Information about the matching segments shared with customers and available for download||Yes (if the match is willing to share genomes)||Yes for all matches||No||Not applicable|
|Chromosome browser available for comparison of shared segments||Yes, using the Family Inheritance: Advanced tool||Yes, using the Chromosome Browser tool||No||Not applicable|
|Chromosome browser can be adjusted to different thresholds for matching segments||No||Yes, with thresholds of 1 cM, 3 cMs, 5 cMs, and 10 cMs||No||Not applicable|
|Maximum number of comparisons that can be done at a time using the chromosome browser||3||5||None||Not applicable|
|Criteria for matching segments||7 cMs and at least 700 SNPs for first segment; 5 cMs and 700 SNPs for additional segments and for people you are sharing with||Between 5 and 10 cMs and at least 500 SNPs for the first segment, but the de facto standard is ca 7.7 cM for the first segment and a total of ca 20 cMs (including the 1-5 cM matching segments)||5 million base pairs for the first segment||Not applicable|
|Information about the start and stop positions of matching segments||Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest millionth base pair in Family Inheritance: Advanced and nearest hundred thousandth pair in Ancestry Finder||Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest complete block of 100 SNPs||Unknown||Not applicable|
|Information reported about the lengths of matching segments||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest tenth of a cM||Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a cM||Not provided||Not applicable|
|Information provided regarding the number of SNPs in each matching segment||Yes||Yes||No||Not applicable|
|Information about matching segments on the X chromosome reported||Yes||Yes||No||Not applicable|
|Criteria for matching segments on the X chromosome||For half-IBD segments: Male vs male: 200 SNPs, 1 cM; male vs female: 600 SNPs, 6 cMs; female vs female: 1200 SNPs, 6 cMs For full-IBD segments: 500 SNPs, 5 cMs||Must already meet the autosomal DNA matching criteria||Unknown||Not applicable|
|Information about mitochondrial DNA matches reported||No||No||No||Yes, for those who have completed their profile about their matrilineal ancestry|
|Integrated genealogy database available to which customers may link||No||No||No, but OneWorldTree is on the Ancestry.com web site||No|
|Biogeographical ancestry analysis||Yes, using Ancestry Composition, Global Similarity, Ancestry Finder features||Yes, using the Population Finder feature||Yes, using the Genetic Ethnicity feature||Yes, using the "Who Am I" feature|
|Overall accuracy and sophistication of the biogeographical ancestry analysis rated on a 1-10 scale with 10 being excellent and 1 being poor||Overall rating: 7.5
The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosone. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country.
|Overall rating: 2.5
The Population Finder analysis is relatively non-specific, particularly for people with European Ancestry.
|Overall rating: 1.5
The Genetic Ethnicity Summary consistently overestimates the Central European and Scandinavian ancestral components for people whose ancestors were from the British Isles. The ancestral component from the British Isles is overestimated for people whose ancestors were from continental Europe. Overall, the European ancestry predictions tend to be inaccurate.
|Overall rating: 3|
Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. The two closest reference populations are given for each person who is tested. However, these predictions, particularly the second closest reference population, are frequently inaccurate.
|Phased data used for determining matching segments||No||No||Yes||Not applicable|
|Phased segments linked to specific ancestors||No||No||No||No|
|Average number of autosomal SNPs with discrepant data using two parent/one child trio datasets||About 335||About 210 to 220||Unknown||Unknown|
|Link can be made to confirm known relationships||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Special features||Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Finder, Neanderthal Ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry tool, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with||Customers can integrate their matches with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results. Family Finder matrix is available for project administrators.||Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches' family trees||There are approximately 75,000 Ancestry Informative Markers from about 450 populations around the world that are included on the test. About 10,000 of the Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations. Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestral percentages are provided.|
|Online Community Forum||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Lead scientists in the company||Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon||Dr. Connie Bormans, Dr. David Mittelman||Ken Chahine, Catherine Ball, Scott Woodward, Jake Byrnes||Spencer Wells|
|Outside consultants for the company||Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard||Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd||Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn||Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan|
|Ownership||Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates||Gene by Gene||As of January 2013 owned by the European equity firm Permira||National Geographic Society|
a Non-profit scientific and educational society
|Additional information about the test||See:||See:||See:
|Additional DNA testing options available from the company||No, not at this time||Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR and SNP testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and complete genome testing||Yes, Y chromosome STR testing and HVR 1 and HVR2 mitochondrial DNA testing is available||No, not at this time|
|Address||1390 Shorebird Way, Mountain View, CA 94043||1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX 77008||360 W 4800 N Provo, UT 84604||1145 17th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20036-4688|
|Phone Number||Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back||713-868-1438||800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia)||888-557-4450 (in the U. S. or Canada) or 713-868-1807|
|Date product launched||November 19, 2007||February 16, 2010||May 3, 2012||July 25, 2012|
- 23andMe reviews
- Ancestry DNA reviews
- Family Finder reviews
- Genographic Project Geno 2.0 reviews
- Comparing Admixture Test Results Across Companies - My Review by CeCe Moore, 18 December 2012
- Autosomal testing comparison by Roberta Estes, 3 January, 2013
- Who do they think I am? A look at four autosomal analyses by Jim Owston, 6 March 2013.
- My autosomal DNA quandary by Randy Seaver, Genea-Musings 22 August 2013.
- Admixture analyses
- Autosomal DNA
- Autosomal DNA tools
- Before You Buy
- Family Finder
- Relative Finder
- Family Finder versus Relative Finder
- Shipping DNA kits
- Comparison DTC DNA tests 01/2013
- Editorial Staff. "Ordering a Test: FAQ # 2106". Family Tree DNA FAQ. Gene by Gene. http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/answers.aspx?id=4#2106. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
- Editorial Staff. "Ordering a Test: FAQ # 2111". Family Tree DNA FAQ. Gene by Gene. http://www.familytreedna.com/faq/answers.aspx?id=4#2111. Retrieved 2013-10-04.
23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and National Geographic Genographic are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.