Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart

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Autosomal DNA testing for genetic genealogy purposes is provided by the following four companies: 23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and the Genographic Project. For background material on purchasing a DNA test see Before You Buy.


Comparison Chart

Company 23andMe Family Tree DNA’s Family Finder test's AncestryDNA test National Geographic Genographic Project Geno 2.0 test
Primary purpose for which the test was designed Medical
Personal Ancestry
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal only)
Population Genetics Research
Personal Ancestry (Autosomal)
Personal Ancestry (Y-DNA)
Personal Ancestry (mtDNA)
Price (as of 23 Mar 2014) $99 for the lifetime of the platform $99 for the lifetime of the platform $99 in the U.S. only (an Ancestry subscription is required to access some features) $199.95
Shipping charges $14.95 for the first kit and $5 per kit for additional kits in the U.S.; $79.95 for the UK; price for other countries varies, but tends to range between $66.95 and $94.95. See Shipping DNA kits for further info. $5 for the USA[1] and $7 for international orders[2] $9.95 per kit None for the U.S.; $10 for Canada; $20 for Europe and Australia; $50 for all other countries
International product availability 56 countries Worldwide United States only at this time Worldwide
Method for collecting the DNA sample saliva sample (about 1 cc) cheek swab saliva sample (about 1/2 cc) cheek swab
DNA sample storage Yes, indefinitely Yes, for a minimum of 25 years No Yes, for 25 years if the free transfer to FTDNA is used
Projects supported No Yes No No
Means of contacting people who share matching segments Contact may be made after seeing your list of matches in DNA Relatives or Ancestry Finder; the matches must be willing to share genomes with you if you are to see what segments you share with your matches E-mail addresses of all matches are available Contact can be made through’s messaging system No, but stories about one's Y patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry can be posted on the web site for others to view, so add your contact information to them.
Average responsiveness of matches Fairly low Medium to Fairly high Medium Not applicable
Average level of genealogical knowledge of matches Fairly low Fairly high Medium Not applicable
GEDCOM file upload allowed Yes Yes Link is created to pedigree charts No
Upload of raw data file allowed from other companies No Yes, but 23andMe Version 3 files and files only No No
Upload of raw data file allowed by GEDmatch into the GEDmatch database Yes Yes Yes No
SNP chip used for testing Customized Illumina chip Illumina OmniExpress Illumina OmniExpress Customized Illumina iSelect HD chip developed in collaboration with Family Tree DNA and Eran Elhaik at Johns Hopkins University
Number of autosomal SNPs tested 577,382 708,092 682,549 126,307
Number of Y chromosome SNPS 2329 None 885 (labeled as chromosome 24) 12,064
Number of X chromosome SNPS 19,487 18,091 17,604 (labeled as chromosome 23), plus 440 SNPs labeled as chromosome 25 that are either from chromosome X or from the pseudoautosomal regions of the Y chromosome 3803
Number of mitochondrial DNA SNPS 3154 None None 11,378 probes covering 3281 positions on the mtDNA genome
Number of people in the database (as of 23 Mar 2014) Over 650,000 About 85,000 About 300,000 136,317 kits have been sold (660,701 - 524,384)
Source for number of people in the database Anne Wojcicki, Future of Genomics Medicine Conference, 7 Mar 2014 personal estimate by Tim Janzen Ken Chahine, RootsTech Conference, 8 Feb 2014 Genographic Project website, 23 Mar 2014
Medically related SNP data included in data Yes No Yes No
Download of raw data file allowed Yes Yes Yes Yes
Information about the matching segments shared with customers and available for download Yes (if the match is willing to share genomes) Yes for all matches No Not applicable
Chromosome browser available for comparison of shared segments Yes, using the Family Inheritance: Advanced tool Yes, using the Chromosome Browser tool No Not applicable
Chromosome browser can be adjusted to different thresholds for matching segments No Yes, with thresholds of 1 cM, 3 cMs, 5 cMs, and 10 cMs No Not applicable
Maximum number of comparisons that can be done at a time using the chromosome browser 3 5 None Not applicable
Criteria for matching segments 7 cMs and at least 700 SNPs for first segment; 5 cMs and 700 SNPs for additional segments and for people you are sharing with Between 5 and 10 cMs and at least 500 SNPs for the first segment, but the de facto standard is ca 7.7 cM for the first segment and a total of ca 20 cMs (including the 1-5 cM matching segments) 5 million base pairs for the first segment Not applicable
Information about the start and stop positions of matching segments Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest millionth base pair in Family Inheritance: Advanced and nearest hundred thousandth pair in Ancestry Finder Start and stop positions are rounded to the nearest complete block of 100 SNPs Unknown Not applicable
Information reported about the lengths of matching segments Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest tenth of a cM Lengths of matching segments reported in cMs and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a cM Not provided Not applicable
Information provided regarding the number of SNPs in each matching segment Yes Yes No Not applicable
Information about matching segments on the X chromosome reported Yes Yes No Not applicable
Criteria for matching segments on the X chromosome For half-IBD segments: Male vs male: 200 SNPs, 1 cM; male vs female: 600 SNPs, 6 cMs; female vs female: 1200 SNPs, 6 cMs For full-IBD segments: 500 SNPs, 5 cMs Must already meet the autosomal DNA matching criteria Unknown Not applicable
Information about mitochondrial DNA matches reported No No No Yes, for those who have completed their profile about their matrilineal ancestry
Integrated genealogy database available to which customers may link No No No, but OneWorldTree is on the web site No
Biogeographical ancestry analysis Yes, using Ancestry Composition, Global Similarity, Ancestry Finder features Yes, using the Population Finder feature Yes, using the Genetic Ethnicity feature Yes, using the "Who Am I" feature
Overall accuracy and sophistication of the biogeographical ancestry analysis rated on a 1-10 scale with 10 being excellent and 1 being poor Overall rating: 7.5
The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosone. Three settings are available: conservative, standard, and speculative. Overall accuracy is reasonably good, but predictions in Europe are still not optimal, particularly in the speculative mode. Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country.
Overall rating: 2.5
The Population Finder analysis is relatively non-specific, particularly for people with European Ancestry.
Overall rating: 1.5
The Genetic Ethnicity Summary consistently overestimates the Central European and Scandinavian ancestral components for people whose ancestors were from the British Isles. The ancestral component from the British Isles is overestimated for people whose ancestors were from continental Europe. Overall, the European ancestry predictions tend to be inaccurate.
Overall rating: 3
Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. The two closest reference populations are given for each person who is tested. However, these predictions, particularly the second closest reference population, are frequently inaccurate.
Phased data used for determining matching segments No No Yes Not applicable
Phased segments linked to specific ancestors No No No No
Average number of autosomal SNPs with discrepant data using two parent/one child trio datasets About 335 About 210 to 220 Unknown Unknown
Link can be made to confirm known relationships Yes Yes No No
Special features Ancestry Composition, Ancestry Finder, Neanderthal Ancestry, Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry tool, Y and mtDNA haplogroups provided for people you are sharing with Customers can integrate their matches with the Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA results. Family Finder matrix is available for project administrators. Comparison of overlap of ancestral origins between matches and automatic identification of common ancestors, surnames and birth places between matches' family trees There are approximately 75,000 Ancestry Informative Markers from about 450 populations around the world that are included on the test. About 10,000 of the Y chromosome SNPs included on the test have not previously been tested in large populations. Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestral percentages are provided.
Online Community Forum Yes Yes Yes Yes
Lead scientists in the company Joanna Mountain, Brian Naughton, Steve Lemon Dr. Connie Bormans, Dr. David Mittelman Ken Chahine, Catherine Ball, Scott Woodward, Jake Byrnes Spencer Wells
Outside consultants for the company Itsik Pe’er, Peter Underhill, Serafim Batzoglou, George Church, Michael Eisen, Marcus Feldman, Daphne Koller, Stanley Nelson, Jonathan Pritchard Michael Hammer, Bruce Walsh, Doron Behar, Theodore Schurr, Alan Redd Philip Awadalla, Jeffrey Botkin, Carlos Bustamante, Mark Daly, John Novembre, Brenna Henn Connie Bormans, Eran Elhaik, Thomas Krahn, Elliott Greenspan
Ownership Privately held by various investors, particularly Anne Wojcicki, Johnson & Johnson Development Corp., The Roche Venture Fund, Google Ventures, and New Enterprise Associates Gene by Gene As of January 2013 owned by the European equity firm Permira National Geographic Society
a Non-profit scientific and educational society
Additional information about the test See: See: See: See:
Additional DNA testing options available from the company No, not at this time Yes, multiple options for Y chromosome STR and SNP testing, complete or partial mitochondrial DNA testing, and complete genome testing Yes, Y chromosome STR testing and HVR 1 and HVR2 mitochondrial DNA testing is available No, not at this time
Address 1390 Shorebird Way, Mountain View, CA 94043 1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX 77008 360 W 4800 N Provo, UT 84604 1145 17th St., N. W., Washington, D. C. 20036-4688
Phone Number Enter a ticket online at customer care for a call-back 713-868-1438 800-958-9124 (best for DNA related questions) or 800-262-3787 (in the U. S.); 0800-404-9723 (UK); 800-958-9073 (Canada); 800-252-838 (Australia) 888-557-4450 (in the U. S. or Canada) or 713-868-1807
E-mail address
Date product launched November 19, 2007 February 16, 2010 May 3, 2012 July 25, 2012


See also


  1. Editorial Staff. "Ordering a Test: FAQ # 2106". Family Tree DNA FAQ. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  2. Editorial Staff. "Ordering a Test: FAQ # 2111". Family Tree DNA FAQ. Gene by Gene. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 


23andMe, AncestryDNA, Family Tree DNA and National Geographic Genographic are registered, trademarked, and/or copyrighted names of companies, websites and organizations, not affiliated with ISOGG.