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Version History Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2016
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2015 tree Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup K: Gareth Henson
K M9, P128/PF5504,
• LT or K1 L298/P326, etc.
• • L or K1a M20/PF5570, etc.
• • T or K1b M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178, etc.
• K2 M526/PF5979 -This was previously classified as K(xLT)
• • NO or K2a M214/Page39 etc.
• • • N or K2a1 M231/Page91
• • • O or K2a2 M175 etc.
• • K2b M1221/P331/PF5911
• • K2b~ M1205, L405/PF5990
• • • K2b1 P397, P399
• • • • K2b1a P405
• • • • • K2b1a1 P60, P304, P308
• • • • • K2b1a2 P79, P307
• • • • • K2b1a3 P315
• • • • • • K2b1a3a P401
• • • • • S or K2b1a4 M230, etc.
• • • • K2b1b P336
• • • • K2b1c P378
• • • • M or K2b1d P256, etc.
• • • P or K2b2 P295/PF5866/S8, etc.
• • K2c P261, P263
• • K2d P402, P403
• • K2e M147
Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage established approximately 40,000
thousand years ago whose origins were probably in southwestern
Asia. K's structure is interwoven with other haplogroups downstream
(refer to the main tree at Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree).
The subclades restricted to K itself are found at low frequencies in various parts
of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
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Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524–539, (2003).
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Eaaswarkhanth et al, Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Improved Phylogenetic Resolution and Rapid Diversification of Y-chromosome Haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-5, 2014.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
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