Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its
Subclades - 2016
The entire work is identified by the Version
Number and date given on the
Directions for citing the document are given at
the bottom of the Main
Because of continuing research, the structure
of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the
if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
criteria for a representative SNP printed
in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage,
in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used
in recent research studies.
listed below in italics
(colored black or red)
are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports
consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Person for Haplogroup K: Gareth
or K1 L298/P326,
or K1a M20/PF5570,
or K1b M184/Page34/USP9Y+3178,
• K2 M526/PF5979
-This was previously classified as K(xLT)
• • NO
or K2a M214/Page39
• • • N
or K2a1 M231/Page91
• • • O
or K2a2 M175
• • •
• • •
• • •
• • •
or K2b2 P295/PF5866/S8,
• • K2e~ M147
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed
in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: M74/N12,
- The Karafet et al (2008) paper made a major change to
Haplogroup K. The subgroups formerly
known as K1 and K7 was moved to M2 and M3, respectively, and K2 and K5
became Haplogroups S and T, respectively.
- The 50f2(C) deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y
chromosome has been observed in several
different haplogroups and is not a unique event polymorphism. It is
notable, however, that it
has been detected at relatively high levels in subgroups of K in
Melanesia - K* (21%), and K3 (14%).
- P299 appeared in earlier K trees, but was omitted in 2014
Karafet study so its placement is uncertain.
chromosome location for M-P256 shown in Karafet (2008) seems off by one
chromosome position. All M samples from next-generation
sequencing show the same mutation at adjacent chromosome position
8685231. So this is the position tentatively listed in the
index. Listed 31 August 2016.
Y-DNA haplogroup K is an old lineage
established approximately 40,000
thousand years ago whose origins were probably in southwestern
Asia. K's structure is interwoven with other haplogroups downstream
(refer to the main tree at Y-DNA
The subclades restricted to K itself are found at low frequencies in
of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Distribution of ancestry of men in Haplogroup K
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Place of the Basques in the European
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Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars
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Bortolini et al,
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Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
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Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands.
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Cruciani et al,
Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
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and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the
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Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim
European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
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Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome
Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf)
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Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human
Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2,
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Phylogenetic Resolution and Rapid Diversification of Y-chromosome
Haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia. European Journal of
Human Genetics, 1-5, 2014.
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A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global
Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi:
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in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia.
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Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and
American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
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Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome
the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al.
Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human
Populations from West New
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Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian
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Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics,
Li et al,
Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations
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of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea
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Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration.
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NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia.
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Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human
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and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India
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Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:
- Added M1205, L405/PF5990 to tree investigation on 1 January
- Added B254, B276,
Z33744, Z33746, Z33747, Z33748, Z33750, Z33751,
Z41332, Z41333, B275,
Z33756, Z33757, Z33758, Z33759 to tree investigation;
added B255, Z33356, Z33357, Z33358, Z33359, Z33360, Z33361,
Z33362, Z33363, Z33364, Z33365, Z33366, Z33367, Z33368, Z33369, Z33370,
Z33373, Z33374, Z33375, Z33376, Z33377, Z33378, Z33379, Z33380, Z33381,
Z33383, Z33384, Z33385, Z33386, Z33388, Z33389, Z33390, Z33391, Z33392,
Z33394, Z33395, Z33396, Z33397, Z33398, Z33399, Z33400, Z33401, Z33402,
Z33404, Z33405, Z33406, Z33407, Z33408, Z33409, Z33410, Z33411, Z33412,
Z33414, Z33415, Z33416, Z33417, Z33418, Z33419, Z33420, Z33421, Z33422,
Z33424, Z33425, Z33426, Z33427, Z33428, Z33429, Z33430, Z33431, Z33432,
Z33434, Z33435, Z33436, Z33437, Z33438, Z33439, Z33440, Z33442, Z33444,
Z33447, Z33448, Z33453, Z33457, Z33458, Z33460, Z33461, Z33462, Z33463,
Z33465, Z33466, Z33467, Z33468, Z33469, Z33470, Z33473, Z33475, Z33477,
Z33479, Z33480, Z33481, Z33482, Z33483, Z33484, Z33485, Z33486, Z33487,
Z33489, Z33490, Z33491, Z33492, Z33493, Z33494, Z33495, Z33496, Z33497,
Z33499, Z33500, Z33501, Z33502, Z33503, Z33504, Z33505, Z33506, Z33507,
Z33509, Z33510, Z33511, Z33512, Z33513, Z33514, Z33515, Z33516, Z33518,
Z33520, Z33521, Z33523, Z33524, Z33525, Z33526, Z33527, Z33528, Z33529,
Z33532, Z33533, Z33534, Z33535, Z33536, Z33537, Z33538, Z33539, Z33540,
Z33542, Z33543, Z33544, Z33545, Z33546, Z33547, Z33548, Z33549, Z33550,
Z33552, Z33553, Z33554, Z33555, Z33556, Z33557, Z33558, Z33559, Z33560,
Z33562, Z33564, Z33565, Z33566, Z33567, Z33568, Z33569, Z33570, Z33571,
Z33573, Z33574, Z33575, Z33576, Z33577, Z33578, Z33579, Z33580, Z33581,
Z33584, Z33585, Z33586, Z33587, Z33588, Z33589, Z33590, Z33591, Z33592,
Z33594, Z33597, Z33598, Z33599, Z33601, Z33602, Z33603, Z33604, Z33605,
Z33607, Z33608, Z33609, Z33610, Z33611, Z33612, Z33613, Z33614, Z33615,
Z33617, Z33618, Z33619, Z33620, Z33621, Z33622, Z33624, Z33626, Z33627,
Z33629, Z33630, Z33631, Z33632, Z33633, Z33634, Z33636, Z33637, Z33638,
Z33640, Z33641, Z33642, Z33643, Z33644, Z33645, Z33646, Z33648, Z33649,
Z33651, Z33652, Z33653, Z33654, Z33655, Z33656, Z33658, Z33659, Z33660,
Z33663, Z33664, Z33665, Z33666, Z33667, Z33668, Z33669, Z33670, Z33671,
Z33673, Z33674, Z33675, Z33676, Z33677, Z33678, Z33679, Z33680, Z33681,
Z33683, Z33684, Z33685, Z33686, Z33687, Z33688, Z33689, Z33690, Z33691,
Z33693, Z33694, Z33696, Z33697, Z33698, Z33700, Z33701, Z33702, Z33703,
Z33705, Z33706, Z33707, Z33708, Z33709, Z33710, Z33711, Z33712, Z33713,
Z33715, Z33716, Z33717, Z33719, Z33721, Z33722, Z33723, Z33724, Z33725,
Z33727, Z33728, Z33729, Z33737, Z33739 to tree on 27 July
- Added PF5506, B273 to tree; removed L405/PF5990,
M1205, P304, P397, P378 not meeting quality guidelines
on 28 July 2016.
- Added geographical distribution section; added YFS44737.2,
Z41335, Z41336, Z41337, Z41338, Z41339, Z41340, Z41341 to tree; added Karmin &
Bergstrom studies to bibliography on
31 July 2016.
- Added Z41349,
Z41352, Z41353, Z41344,
Z41347, Z41348, BY3295,
SK1891, SK1892, SK1893, SK1894, SK1895, SK1896, SK1898, SK1899, SK1901,
Z33753, Z41356, Z41357, Z41358, Z41359, Z41360, Z41361, Z41362, Z41363,
Z41364, Z41365, Z41366, Z41367, Z41368, Z41369, Z41370, Z41371, Z41372,
Z41373, Z41374, Z41375, Z41376, Z41377, Z41378. Z41379, Z41380, Z41381,
Z41382, Z41383, Z41384, Z41384, Z41385, Z41386, Z41387, Z41388, Z41389,
Z41390, Z41391, Z41392, Z41393, Z41394, Z41395, Z41396, Z41397, Z41398,
Z41399, Z41400, Z41401, Z41402, Z41403, Z41404, Z41405, Z41406, Z41407,
Z41408, Z41409, Z41410, Z41411, Z41412, Z41413, Z41414, Z41415, Z41416,
Z41417, Z41418, Z41419, Z41420, Z41421, Z41422, Z41423, Z41424, Z41425,
Z41426, Z41427, Z41428, Z41429, Z41430. Z41431, Z41432. Z41433. Z41434,
Z41435, Z41436, Z41437, Z41438, Z41439, Z41440, Z41441, Z41442, Z41443,
Z41444, Z41445, Z41446, Z41447, Z41448, Z41449, Z41450, Z41451, Z41452,
Z41453, Z41454, Z41455, Z41456, Z41457, Z41458, Z41459, Z41460, Z41461,
Z41462, Z41463, Z41464. Z41465, Z41466, Z41467, Z41468, Z41469, Z41470,
Z41471, Z41472, Z41473, Z41474, Z41475, Z41476, Z41477, Z41478, Z41479,
Z41480, Z41481, Z41482, Z41483, Z41484, Z41485, Z41486, Z41487, Z41488,
Z41489, Z41490, Z41491, Z41492, Z41493, Z41494, Z41495, Z41496, Z41497,
Z41498, Z41499, Z41500, Z41501, Z41502, Z41503, Z41504, Z41355
to tree; added Z41389,
Z41454 to tree investigation on 1 August 2016.
- Added Z41505, Z41506, Z41507, Z41508, Z41509
to tree investigation; added Z41513,
AM00651.2/Z33118.2, FGC17153.2/V3938.2/Z18210.2, FGC38729, M10072,
Z41514, Z41515, Z41516, Z41517, Z41518, Z41519, Z41520, Z41521, Z41522,
Z41523, Z41524, Z41525, Z41526, Z41527, Z41528. Z41529, Z41530, Z41531,
Z41532, Z41533, Z41534, Z41535, Z41536, Z41537, Z41538, Z41539, Z41540,
Z41541, Z41542, Z41543, Z41544, Z41545, Z41546, Z41547, Z41548, Z41549,
Z41550, Z41551, Z41552, Z41553, Z41554, Z41555, Z41556, Z41557, Z41558,
Z41559, Z41560, Z41561, Z41562, Z41563, Z41564, Z41565, Z41566, Z41567,
Z41568, Z41569, Z41570, Z41571, Z41572, Z41573, Z41574, Z41575, Z41576,
Z41577, Z41578, Z41579, Z41580, Z41581, Z41582, Z41583, Z41584, Z41585,
Z41586, Z41587, Z41588, Z41589, Z41590, Z41591, Z41592, Z41593, Z41594,
Z41595, Z41596, Z41597, Z41598, Z41599, Z41600, Z41601, Z41602, Z41603,
Z41604, Z41605, Z41606, Z41607, Z41608, Z41609, Z41610, Z41611, Z41512,
Z41613, Z41614, Z41615, Z41616, Z41617, Z41618, Z41619, Z41620, Z41621.
Z41622, Z41623, Z41624, Z41625, Z41626 to tree on 2 August 2016.
- Added Z41663, P308, Z41664,
Z41665, Z41666, Z41667, Z41668, Z41669, Z41670. Z41671, Z41672, Z41673,
Z41674, Z41675, Z41676, Z41677, Z41678, Z41679, Z41680, Z41681, Z41682,
Z41683, Z41684, Z41685, Z41686, Z41687, Z41688, Z41689, Z41690, Z41691,
Z41692, Z41693, Z41694, Z41695, Z41696, Z41697, Z41698, Z41699, Z41700,
Z41701. Z41702, Z41703, Z41704. Z41705, Z41706, Z41707, Z41708, Z41709,
Z41710, Z41711, Z41712, Z41713, Z41714, Z41715, Z41716, Z41717, Z41718,
Z41719, Z41720, Z41721, Z41722, Z41723, Z41724, Z41725, Z41726, Z41727,
Z41728, Z41729, Z41730, Z41731, Z41732, Z41733, Z41734, Z41735, Z41736,
Z41737, Z41738, Z41739, Z41740, Z41741, Z41742, Z41743, Z41744, Z41745,
Z41746, Z41747, Z41763, PR495.2/Y11835.2, Z41764,
Z41765, Z41767, Z41768, Z41769, Z41770, Z41771, Z41772, Z41773, Z41774,
Z41775, Z41776 to
tree; added Z41753,
Z41754, Z41755, Z41756, Z41757, Z41758,
Z41759, Z41760, Z41761, Z41762, Z41748,
Z41749, Z41750, Z41751, Z41752
to tree investigation on 3 August 2016.
- Added Z41777,
Z41778, Z41779, Z41780, Z41781, Z41782, Z41783, Z41784, Z41785, Z41786,
Z41787, Z41788, Z41789, Z41790, Z41791, Z41792, Z41793, Z41794, Z41795,
Z41796, Z41797, Z41798, Z41799, Z41800, Z41801, Z41802, Z41803, Z41804,
Z41805, Z41806, Z41807, Z41808, Z41809, Z41810, Z41811, Z41812, Z41813,
Z41814, Z41815, Z41816, Z41817, Z41818, Z41819, Z41820, Z41821, Z41822,
Z41823, Z41824, Z41825, Z41826, Z41827, Z41828, Z41829, Z41830, Z41831,
Z41832, Z41833, Z41834, Z41835, Z41836, Z41837, Z41838, Z41839, Z41840,
Z41841, Z41842, Z41843, Z41844, Z41845, Z41846, Z41847, Z41848, Z41849,
Z41850, Z41851, Z41852. Z41853, Z41854, Z41855, Z41856, Z41857, Z41858,
Z41859, Z41860, Z41861, Z41862, Z41863, Z41864, Z41865, Z41866, Z41867,
Z41868, Z41869, Z41870, Z41871, Z41872, Z41873, Z41874, Z41875, Z41876,
Z41877, Z41878, Z41879, Z41880, Z41881, Z41882, Z41883, Z41884, Z41885,
Z41886, Z41887, Z41888, Z41889, Z41890, Z41891, Z41892, Z41893, Z41894,
Z41895, Z41896, Z41897, Z41898, Z41899, Z41900, Z41901, Z41902, Z41903,
Z41904, Z41905, Z41906, Z41907, Z41908, Z41908, Z41909, Z41910, Z41911,
Z41912, Z41913, Z41914, Z41915, FGC9126, FGC36892, PLE10.2,
Z41917, Z41918, Z41919, Z41920, Z41921,
Z41922, Z41923, Z41924, Z41925
to tree on 4 August 2016.
- Added Z41926,
Z41927, Z41928, Z41929, Z41930 to tree investigation; added
SK1817, FGC43097.2, SK1806, SK1807, SK1809, SK1810, SK1812,
SK1814, SK1822, Z41931, Z41932, Z41933, Z41934, Z41935,
Z41937, Z41938, Z41939, Z41940, Z41941, Z41942, Z41943, Z41944, Z41945,
Z41946, Z41947, Z41948, Z41949, Z41950, Z41951, Z41952, Z41953, Z41954,
Z41955, Z41956, Z41957, Z41958, Z41959, Z41960, Z41961, Z41962, Z41963,
Z41964, Z41965, Z41966, Z41967, Z41968, Z41969, Z41970, Z41971, Z41972,
Z41973, Z41974, Z41975, Z41976, Z41977, Z41978, Z41979, Z41980, Z41981,
Z41982, Z41983, Z41984, Z41985, Z41986, Z41987, Z41988, Z41989, Z41990,
Z41991, Z41992, Z41993, Z41994, Z41995, Z41996, Z41997, Z41998, Z41999,
Z42000, Z42001, Z42002, Z42003, Z42004, Z42005, Z42006, Z42007, Z42008,
Z42009, Z42010, Z42011, Z42012, Z42013, Z42014, Z42015, Z42016, Z42017,
Z42018, Z42019, Z42020, Z42021, Z42022, Z42023, Z42024, Z42025, Z42026,
Z42027, Z42028, Z42029, Z42030, Z42031, Z42032, Z42033, Z42034, Z42035,
Z42036, Z42037, Z42038, Z42039, Z42040, Z42041, Z42042, Z42043, Z42044,
Z42045, Z42046, Z42047, Z42048, Z42049, Z42050, Z42051, Z42052, Z42053,
Z42054, Z42055, Z42056, Z42057, Z42058, Z42059, Z42060, Z42061, Z42062,
Z42063, Z42064. Z42065, Z42066, Z42067, Z42068, Z42069, Z42070, Z42071,
Z42072, Z42073, Z42074, Z42075, Z42076, Z42077, Z42078, Z42079, Z42080
to tree on 5 August 2016.
- Add Z42146,
Z42147, Z42148, Z42149, Z42150, Z42151, Z42152, Z42153, Z42154, Z42155,
Z42156, Z42157, Z42158, Z42159, Z42160, Z42161, Z42162, Z42163, Z42164,
Z42165, Z42166, Z42167, Z42168, Z42169, Z42170, Z42171, Z42172, Z42173,
Z42174, Z42175, Z42176, Z42177, Z42178, Z42179, Z42180, Z42181, Z42182,
Z42183, Z42184, Z42185, Z42186, Z42187, Z42188, Z42189, Z42190, Z42191,
Z42192, Z42193, Z42194, Z42195, Z42196, Z42197, Z42198, Z42199, Z42200,
Z42201, Z42202, Z42203, Z42204, Z42205, Z42206, Z42207, Z42208, Z42209,
Z42210, Z42211, Z42212, Z42213, Z42214, Z42215, Z42216, Z42217, Z42218,
Z42219, Z42220, Z42221, Z42222, Z42223, Z42224, Z42225, Z422226,
Z42227, Z42228, S777, FGC5054, SK1824, FGC22541.2, SK1821 to tree on 6 August 2016.
Z31109, Z31091, Z31092, Z31199 to tree investigation on 11 August 2016.
Z42413, Z42414, Z42415, Z42416, Z42417, Z42418, Z42419, Z42420 to tree
on 28 August 2016.
most of haplogroup K items to more appropriate classification under
haplogroup S on 30 August 2016.
chromosome position for P256 on 31 August 2016.