Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2015 tree Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Tim Janzen
• M1 M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296, P35_1, P35_2, P35_3
• M1~ Page1
• • M1a P34_1, P34_2, P34_3, P34_4, P34_5
• • • M1a1 P51
• • • M1a2 P94
• • M1b P87
• • • M1b1 M104_1/P22_1, M104_2/P22_2
• • • M1b1~ F2561/Page67
• • • • M1b1a M16
• • • • M1b1b M83
• M2 M353, M387
• • M2a M177/SRY9138
• M3 P117, P118
Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.
Cox M P & Lahr M M,
Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired
Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands.
American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Hurles et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
Hurles et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
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Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:
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