Y-DNA Haplogroup M and its Subclades - 2016

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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 19 September 2016

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
FONT COLORS:  Newly confirmed in 2016 within subclade  Confirmed within subclade  Investigational items  

^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup M: Tim Janzen

M   P256, Page93/S322
 M1   M4, M5/P73, M106, M186, M189, M296,
 M1~ BY8413/Z30938, CTS7357.2, M5991, Page1, Page93/S322, PH3025, SK1828, SK1845, SK1846, SK1847, SK1848, SK1849, SK1850, SK1851, SK1852, SK1853, SK1854, SK1855, SK1856, SK1857, SK1869, Y1422.2/Z8214.2, YSC0000696, Z376.2, FGC13408.2,/Z1639.2, Z31028.2, Z30832, Z30835, Z30839, Z30840, Z30841, Z30890, Z30891, Z30892, Z30893, Z30894, Z30895, Z30896, Z30897, Z30898, Z30899, Z30900, Z30901, Z30902, Z30903, Z30904, Z30905, Z30907, Z30908, Z30909, Z30910, Z30911, Z30912, Z30913, Z30914, Z30915, Z30916, Z30917, Z30918, Z30919, Z30920, Z30921, Z30922, Z30923, Z30924, Z30925, Z30926, Z30927, Z30929, Z30930, Z30931, Z30932, Z30933, Z30934, Z30935, Z30936, Z30937, Z30939, Z30940, Z30942, Z30943, Z30944, Z30945, Z30948, Z30949, Z30950, Z30951, Z30952, Z30953, Z30054, Z30955, Z30956, Z30957, Z30958, Z30959, Z30960, Z30961, Z30962, Z30963, Z30964, Z30965, Z30966, Z30967, Z30968, Z30972, Z30975, Z30976, Z30977, Z30978, Z30979, Z30980, Z30981, Z30982, Z30983, Z30984, Z30985, Z30986, Z30987, Z30988, Z30989, Z30991, Z30992, Z30993, Z30994, Z30995, Z30996, Z30997, Z30998, Z30999, Z31000, Z31001, Z31002, Z31004, Z31005, Z31006, Z31007, Z31008, Z31009, Z31010, Z31011, Z31012, Z31013, Z31014, Z31015, Z31016, Z31017, Z31018, Z31019, Z31020, Z31021, Z31022, Z31023, Z31024, Z31025, Z31026, Z31028, Z31029, Z31030, Z31031, Z31032, Z31033, Z31034, Z31035, Z31036, Z31037, Z31038, Z31039, Z31040, Z31041, Z31042, Z31043, Z31044, Z31045, Z31046, Z31048, Z31049, Z31050, Z31051, Z31052, Z31054, Z31055, Z31056, Z31057, Z31058, Z31059, Z31060, Z31061, Z31062, Z31063, Z31064, Z31065, Z31066, Z31067, Z31068, Z31069, Z31070, Z31071, Z31072, Z31073, Z31074, Z31075, Z31076, Z31077, Z31078, Z31079, Z31080, Z31081, Z31082, Z31083, Z31085, Z31086, Z31087, Z31088, Z31089, Z31090, Z31093, Z31094, Z31095, Z31096, Z31097, Z31099, Z31100, Z31101, Z31102, Z31103, Z31104, Z31105, Z31106, Z31107, Z31108, Z31110, Z31111, Z31112, Z31113, Z31114, Z31115, Z31116, Z31117, Z31133, Z31134, Z31136, Z31137, Z31138, Z31140, Z31141, Z31143. Z31144. Z31145, Z31146. Z31147, Z31148, Z31149, Z31150, Z31151, Z31152, Z31153, Z31154, Z31155, Z31156, Z31157, Z31158, Z31159, Z31160, Z31161, Z31162, Z31163, Z31164, Z31165, Z31166, Z31167, Z31168, Z31169, Z31170, Z31171, Z31172, Z31173, Z31174, Z31175, Z31181, Z31182, Z31183, Z31184, Z31185, Z31187, Z31188, Z31189, Z31190. Z31191, Z31192. Z31193, Z31194, Z31195, Z31196, Z31197, Z31198, Z31199, Z33312, Z33344     
  M1a   P34_1^^, P34_2^^, P34_3^^, P34_4^^, P34_5^^
   M1a1   P51
   M1a2   P94
  M1b  P87
   M1b1   M104_1/P22_1^^, M104_2/P22_2^^
   M1b1~  F2561/Page67
   M1b1~  FGC24709, FGC36703, SK1877, SK1879, Z30928, Z31007,  Z31146, Z42236, Z42237, Z42238, Z42239, Z42240, Z42241, Z42242, Z42243, Z42244, Z42245, Z42246, Z42247, Z42248, Z42249, Z42250, Z42251, Z42252, Z42253, Z42254, Z42255, Z42256, Z42257, Z42258, Z42259, Z42260, Z42261, Z42262, Z42263, Z42264, Z42265, Z42266, Z42267, Z42268, Z42269, Z42270, Z42271, Z42272, Z42273, Z42274, Z42275, Z42276, Z42277,  Z42278, Z42279, Z42280
    M1b1a   M16
    M1b1b   M83
    M1b1b~  SK1881, Z42285, Z42286, Z42287
    M1b1c~  SK1880, Z42281, Z42282, Z42283, Z42284
  M1c~ Z33330, Z33345, Z42288
   M1c1~ SK1872, Z42289, Z42290, Z42291, Z42292
   M1c2  B256, SK1882, Z31135, Z33309, Z33313, Z33318, Z33319, Z33323, Z33325, Z33331, Z33336, Z33343, Z33347, Z33348, Z33350
   M1c2~  Z33310, Z33311, Z33317, Z33320, Z33321, Z33327, Z33337, Z33341, Z33351
    M1c2a  Z33322, Z33324, Z33326, Z33328, Z33332
    M1c2a~ Z33114. Z33315, Z33316, Z33317, Z33329, Z33333, Z33335, Z33339, Z33340, Z33342
     M1c2a1~ SK1889, Z42293, Z42294, Z42295, Z42296
     M1c2a2  Z42297. Z42298, Z42299. Z42300, Z42301, Z42302, Z42303, Z42304, Z42305, Z42306, Z42307, Z42308, Z42309, Z42310, Z42311, Z42312, Z42313, Z42314, Z42315, Z42316, Z42317. Z42318, Z42319, Z42320, Z42321, Z42322
      M1c2b1a~ Z42323, Z42324, Z42325, Z42326, Z42327
      M1c2b1b~ BY3630.2, F1295.2, Z42328, Z42329, Z42330
     M1c2a3  B269. Z31204, Z33269, Z33270, Z33271, Z33272, Z33273, Z33274, Z33276, Z33277, Z33278, Z33279, Z33280, Z33281, Z33282, Z33283, Z33284, Z33285, Z33286, Z33288, Z33289, Z33290, Z33291, Z33292, Z33293, Z33295, Z33296, Z33297, Z33298, Z33299, Z33300 
      M1c2a3a~ B271, Z33302, Z33305, Z33307, Z33308
      M1c2a3b~ B270, Z38339, Z38340, Z38341
     M1c2a4~ B272, Z33740. Z33741, Z33742, Z33743
    M1c2b~ Z42538, Z42539, Z42540, Z42541, Z42542
 M2   M353, M387
 M2~ F1992.2, PF4350
  M2a   M177/SRY9138^^
 M3  P117, P118


Y-DNA haplogroup M reaches its known peak in Papua New Guinea, totaling one-third to two-thirds of population.  The haplogroup M Aborigines in Australia seem comparatively to be the most recent arrivals among Aborigines (Bergstrom).  

Geographic distribution so far of ancestry of modern-day haplogroup M subgroup men (not complete):

       M16         Papua New Guinea
       M83         Papua New Guinea
       B271        Papua New Guinea
       B269        Papua New Guinea
       Z42297    N. Australia (Aborigines)
      M177        Papua New Guinea
      P117         Melanesia


Bergstrom et al, Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes. (pdf) Current Biology, 26:809-813, (2016).
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
et al, European Y-Chromosomal Lineages in Polynesians: A Contrast to the Population Structure Revealed by mtDNA. American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1793-1806, 1998.
et al, Y Chromosomal Evidence for the Origins of Oceanic-Speaking Peoples. Genetics, 160:289-303, January 2002.
et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
et al, Melanesian Origin of Polynesian Y Chromosomes. Current Biology, Vol. 10, No. 20, September 2000.
et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.

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