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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2013 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
O M175, P186, P191, P196
O1a M119, F589/Page20
O1a2 M50, M103, M110
O2 L463, F167/L690, P31, M268
O2a1a M88, M111
O2b IMS-JST022454, L272.2, M176//Page63/SRY465, M302, P49, F1942/Page92
O3 CTS10736, CTS10753, F36, F400, F433, F471, F633, M122, P198
O3a CTS8153, CTS8399, F27, F113, F129, F166, F341, F406, F572, F71, M324, P93/Page79, P197, P199, P200
O3a1 L127.1, KL1/L465, KL2/L467
O3a1a M121, DYS257_1/DYS257_2/P27.2_1/P27.2_2
O3a1c1 F11, F425/Page69
O3a2 CTS8236, F525, IMS-JST021354/P201
O3a2b1 M113, M188, M209
O3a2c CTS4723, CTS11109, CTS12099, F130, F131, F299, F422, F427, P164
O3a2c1a M117, M133, Page23
O3a2c1a1 M162_1, M162_2
O3a2c2 CTS1366, F706, F871, F996, F1481, F1598, F1645, F1672, F1693, F2029, F2083, F2139, F2469, F2654, F2683, F3223, F3237
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup O probably originated in East Asia and later migrated into the South Pacific. The lineage expanded into Taiwan (high frequency in the aboriginal Taiwanese), Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.
O3 is the predominant sub-group in China. The O1 and O2a lineages are found in Southeast Asian populations of Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and southern China. The O2b sub-group is of high frequency in the Japanese and Korean populations.
Capredon et al, Tracing Arab-Islamic Inheritance in Madagascar: Study of the Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA in the Antemoro. PLoS ONE 8(11): e80932. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080932, 2013.
Chen et al, Y Chromosome Genotyping and Genetic Structure of Zhuang Populations. (abstract) Acta Genetica Sinica, 33(12), 1060-72, 2006.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Dulik et al, Y-Chromosome Variation in Altaian Kazakhs Reveals a Common Paternal Gene Pool for Kazakhs and the Influence of Mongolian Expansions. (pdf) PLoS ONE, Vol. 6, Issue 3, e17548, 2011.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Jin et al, Genetic Diversity of Two Haploid Markers in the Udegey Population from Southeastern Siberia. (abstract) American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 142:303-313, 2010.
Jin et al, The Peopling of Korea Revealed by Analyses of Mitochondrial DNA and Y-Chromosomal Markers. PLoS One, vol 4(1):ed4210, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Naitoh S, et al, Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs Found in Japanese Population to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup tree. Journal of Human Genetics, 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.159, 2013.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations. (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
<Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian-Specific Haplogroup O3-M122. (abstract) American Journal of Human Genetics. 77:408-419, 2005.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Tan S, et al, Y-chromosome Polymorphisms Define the Origin of the Mang, an Isolated Population in China. Annals of Human Biology, Sep;34(5):573-581, 2007
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue Y, et al, Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times. (abstract) Genetics, 172:2431-2439, 2006
Shi Yan et al, An Updated Tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and Revised Phylogenetic Positions of Mutations P164 and PK4. European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication 20 April 2011; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.64
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
Wang et al, Late Neolithic Expansion of Ancient Chinese Revealed by Y chromosome Haplogroup O3a1c-002611. (abstract) Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 51:3, 24 Mar 2013. Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
Zhong et al, Extended Y-chromosome Investigation Suggests Post-Glacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route. Molecular Biology, 28(1):717-727, 2011.
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O...O3 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Denis Grigoriev.
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