Y-DNA Haplogroup L and its Subclades - 2014

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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 14 May 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation  

Contact Person for Haplogroup L: Gareth Henson

L   M20/PF5570, L855, L863, L878/PF5524, L879/PF5697, M11, M61/Page43, M185/PF5755
L*   -
L1   L656, L1304, M22, M295, Page121
• • L1*   -
• • L1a   M27, M76, P329
• • L1b   L655, M317
• • • L1b*   -
• • • L1b1   M349
• • • L1b2   M274
• • L1c   L1307, M357
L2   L595

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree: either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

Y-DNA haplogroup L is found primarily as sub-group L1a (former L1) in India, Southern Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Paragroups L1b* and L1b1* (former L2*) and sub-group L1b1a (former L2a) are found at low frequencies in the Middle East and Europe. Sub-group L1c (former L3) is found mainly in northern Pakistan, northern India and west-central Asia.

NOTES:

References:

Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup L Project, Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

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