The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page. Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|COLOR CODES: Newly confirmed in 2016 within subclade Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing
entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup L: Gareth Henson
L855, L863, L878/PF5524, L879/PF5697, M11, M61/Page43, M185/PF5755, M2356/PF5683, M2362/PF5692,
M2370/PF5695, M2390/PF5705, M2403/PF5528, M2404/PF5715, M2407/PF5717, M2411/PF5718, M2413/PF5720, M2426/PF5723, M2444/PF5729, M2453/PF5737, M2463/PF5743, M2466/PF5744, M2472/PF5747, M2485/PF5754, M2492/PF5756, M2525/PF5771, M2532/PF5773, M2572/PF5795, M2579/PF5806, M2587/PF5810, M2595/PF5813, M2597/PF5563, M2598/PF5815, M2611/PF5564,
M2613/PF5821, M2615/PF5823, M2640/PF5829, M2655/PF5832, M2657/PF5833, M2660/PF5837,
M2661/PF5839, M2670/PF5841, M2675/PF5842, M8987/PF5699, PF5532, PF5539, PF5554, PF5557, PF5583, PF5732,
PF5757, PF5779, PF5790, PF5791, PF5802,
• L1 M22, L656, L1304, M295, Page121
• • L1a M2481, M2565, M2605, M2664, Y5525/Z20163, Y5560/Z20168
• • • L1a1 M27, M76, P329, L1319, L1320, L1321
• • • L1a2 M357, L1307
• • L1b M317, L655, PH982, PH1071, PH1379, PH2312, PH2342, PH3435, PH3443, PH3615, PH3912, PH4035, PH4159, PH4188, SK1413
• • • L1b1 M349, Page113
• • • • L1b1a Page116
• • • L1b2 SK1412
• • • • L1b2a~ M274, SK1415, SK1416
• • • • L1b2b~ PH8, PH108, PH612, PH997, PH1060, PH1371, PH1428, PH1520, PH1844, PH2124, PH2161, PH2832, PH2952, PH3298, PH3524, PH4160, PH4366.1, PH4489, PH4587
• • • • • L1b2b1~ PH2079
• • • • • • L1b2b1a~ PH1714, PH3523
• • • • • L1b2b2~ PH1099, PH3342
• • • • • • L1b2b2a~ PH1728
• • • • • • L1b2b2b~ Y18889, Y18890
• • • • L1b2c~ SK1414
• L2 L595, L877/PF5780, Page6
Y-DNA haplogroup L is found at low frequencies in the Middle East and Europe as paragroup L-M317 (L1b*, originally L2*), subgroup L-M349 (L1b1, originally L2a) and subgroup L-L595 (L2), and at significant frequencies in South Asia as subgroups L-M27 (L1a1, formerly L1a and originally L1) and L-M357 (L1a2, formerly L1c and originally L3).
Balanovsky et al,
Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Hallast et al, The Y-chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades, Molecular Biology and Evolution, doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu327, 2014.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup L Project, Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:
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