Y-DNA Haplogroup L and its Subclades - 2016

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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 26 August 2016

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk    SNP Index    Papers/Presentations Cited    Glossary   Listing Criteria
COLOR CODES:  Newly confirmed in 2016 within subclade  Confirmed within subclade   Investigational items

^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup L: Gareth Henson

L   M20/PF5570, L855, L863, L878/PF5524, L879/PF5697, M11, M61/Page43, M185/PF5755, M2356/PF5683, M2362/PF5692, M2368/PF5693, M2369/PF5694, M2370/PF5695, M2390/PF5705, M2403/PF5528, M2404/PF5715, M2407/PF5717, M2411/PF5718, M2413/PF5720, M2426/PF5723, M2444/PF5729, M2453/PF5737, M2463/PF5743, M2466/PF5744, M2472/PF5747, M2485/PF5754, M2492/PF5756, M2525/PF5771, M2532/PF5773, M2572/PF5795, M2579/PF5806M2587/PF5810, M2595/PF5813, M2597/PF5563, M2598/PF5815, M2611/PF5564, M2613/PF5821, M2615/PF5823, M2640/PF5829, M2655/PF5832, M2657/PF5833, M2660/PF5837, M2661/PF5839, M2670/PF5841, M2675/PF5842, M8987/PF5699, PF5532, PF5539, PF5554, PF5557, PF5583, PF5732, PF5757,  PF5779, PF5790, PF5791, PF5802, PF5804, PF5830 
L1   M22, L656, L1304, M295, Page121
  L1a   M2481, M2565, M2605, M2664, Y5525/Z20163, Y5560/Z20168
   L1a1   M27, M76, P329, L1319, L1320, L1321
   L1a2   M357, L1307
  L1b   M317, L655, PH982, PH1071, PH1379, PH2312, PH2342, PH3435, PH3443, PH3615, PH3912, PH4035, PH4159, PH4188, SK1413
   L1b1   M349, Page113
    L1b1a   Page116
   L1b2   SK1412
    L1b2a~ M274, SK1415, SK1416
    L1b2b~ PH8, PH108, PH612, PH997, PH1060, PH1371, PH1428, PH1520, PH1844, PH2124, PH2161, PH2832, PH2952, PH3298, PH3524, PH4160, PH4366.1, PH4489, PH4587
     L1b2b1~ PH2079
      L1b2b1a~ PH1714, PH3523
     L1b2b2~ PH1099, PH3342
      L1b2b2a~ PH1728
      L1b2b2b~ Y18889, Y18890
    L1b2c~ SK1414
L2   L595, L877/PF5780, Page6

Y-DNA haplogroup L is found at low frequencies in the Middle East and Europe as paragroup L-M317 (L1b*, originally L2*), subgroup L-M349 (L1b1, originally L2a) and subgroup L-L595 (L2), and at significant frequencies in South Asia as subgroups L-M27 (L1a1, formerly L1a and originally L1) and L-M357 (L1a2, formerly L1c and originally L3).

NOTES:

References:

Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Hallast et al, The Y-chromosome Tree Bursts into Leaf: 13,000 High-confidence SNPs Covering the Majority of Known Clades, Molecular Biology and Evolution, doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu327, 2014.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1):46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
The Y-Haplogroup L Project, Gareth Henson, Peter Hrechdakian.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2016:

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