Homo neanderthalensis 

Neanderthal DNA

Neanderthal skulls were first discovered in Engis, Belgium, in 1829, but derive their name from the Neander Valley in Germany, the site of a later find in 1856.  For many years, the debate has raged as to whether Neanderthals are a predecessor to modern humans.  

Mitochondrial DNA extracted from ancient Neanderthal remains have been typed and found to differ significantly from human mitochondrial DNA. (Source)   While the results do not indicate a common ancestry, a team of scientists in Germany have recovered and sequenced Y-chromosome DNA from a 49,000 year-old Neanderthal.  The team estimates that Homo sapiens sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis may have shared a common ancestor in the Homo genus several hundred thousand years ago.  (Source) Update: 16 May 2006

The following seven Neanderthal mitochondrial DNA sequences are found in GENBANK under 'homo sapiens neanderthalensis' and have been converted by Ian Logan:

 
HVR1 Haplotype
AF254446 T16086C G16129A A16139T C16148T G16156A C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C 16193.C
16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A C16278T
A16299G T16311C C16320T C16344T T16362C

 
HVR1 Haplotype
AF011222 A16037G A16078G T16093C C16107T C16108T C16111T C16112T G16129A A16139T C16148T
T16154C C16169T A16183. T16189C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A
C16256A A16258G C16262T 16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C C16400T

 
HVR1 Haplotype
AF282971
A16037G A16078G G16129A A16139T C16148T T16154C C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C
16193.C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A A16258G C16262T
16263.A C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C

 
HVR1 Haplotype
AY149291
A16037G A16078G G16129A A16139T C16148T T16154C C16169T A16182. A16183. T16189C
16193.C 16193.C T16209C C16223T A16230G C16234T G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A
C16278T A16299G T16311C C16320T T16362C

 
HVR1 Haplotype
DQ464008 (Belgium) C16223T A16230G C16234T T16243C G16244A C16256A C16262T 16263.A C16266T
C16278T C16291T A16299G T16311C C16320T

 
HVR2 Haplotype

AF282972
A73G    T146C   C150T   T152C   A189G   A200G   A243G   T245C   G247A   C262T
A263G   304.T   C338T

 
HVR2 Haplotype
AF142095 A73G    T146C   C150T   T152C   A189G   A243G   T245C   G247A   C262T   A263G
307.T   307.T   307.T   T391C 

NOTE:  The purpose of the "Neanderthal DNA" page is to provide a compilation of DNA results of ancient homo neanderthalensis for comparison and educational purposes only.  The HVR1 region spans 16024 -16383 and HVR2 is 57-372.

More articles:

Neanderthal Man 

Neanderthal DNA illuminates split with humans - 11 Oct 2006

 

[Ancient DNA]    [Famous DNA]  [Founding Father DNA]  [Famous Haplogroups]
[Presidential DNA]

 

Photo in header: Neanderthal Hunter - American Mus. Nat. Hist.
Source: wikipedia
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