Identical by state
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Identical by state is a term used to describe DNA segments which match purely by coincidence. In contrast two people who are Identical by Descent have matching segments that can be attributed to a shared common ancestor.
- Wheaton K. atDNA matches. Lesson 9 in the series "Beginners' Guide to Genetic Genealogy", Wheaton Surname Resources website, 2013.
- Cooper K. The ABCs of DNA - IBD vs IBS vs mIBC Kitty Cooper's DNA Genealogy blog, 30 January 2012.
- Turner A. "Satiable Curiosity: Identity Crisis: Identical by State or Identical by Descent?" Journal of Genetic Genealogy Fall 2011, Volume 7.