Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2014

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 24 October 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact People for Haplogroup I:
Overall I Contact: Phil Goff
I1 and Subclades Contact: Steve Trangsrud
I2a1 P37.2 and Subclades Contact: Zdenko Markovic
I2a2 P217 and Subclades Contact: Aaron Salles Torres
I2b L415 and I2c L596 Subclades Contact: Bob May

I   M170/PF3715, CTS48/PF3569, CTS70/PF3570, CTS88/PF3571, CTS646/PF3629, CTS674/FI1/PF3630, CTS772/PF3631, CTS1006, CTS1301/PF3635, CTS1555/PF3696, CTS1800/PF3699, CTS2193/PF3703, CTS2387/PF3705, CTS2514/PF3706, CTS2536/PF3707, CTS3076/PF3712, CTS3383/PF3716, CTS3384/PF3717, CTS3517/PF3719, CTS3641/PF3722, CTS4077/PF3725, CTS4088/PF3868, CTS4209/PF3726, CTS4239/PF3727, CTS4272/PF3728, CTS4273/PF3729, CTS4340/PF3730, CTS4637, CTS4664, CTS4745/PF3734, CTS4752/PF3735, CTS4848/FI7/PF3736, CTS4982/PF3737, CTS5016/PF3738, CTS5150/PF3739, CTS5263, CTS5622/PF3743, CTS5650/PF3744, CTS5764/PF3746, CTS5908/PF3747, CTS5946/PF3748, CTS6231/PF3750, CTS6265/PF3871, CTS6271/PF3751, CTS6334/PF3752, CTS6343/PF3753, CTS6344/PF3754, CTS6497/PF3756, CTS6751/PF3757, CTS7026/PF3758, CTS7329, CTS7469, CTS7502/PF3760, CTS7540/PF3761, CTS7593/PF3763, CTS7831/PF3766, CTS8064/PF3768, CTS8257, CTS8300/PF3770, CTS8333/PF3771, CTS8345/PF3772, CTS8420/PF3773, CTS8545/PF3775, CTS8742/PF3776, CTS8876/PF3778, CTS8963, CTS9264/PF3782, CTS9269/PF3783, CTS9484/PF3785, CTS9618/PF3786, CTS9838/PF3788, CTS9860/PF3790, CTS10058, CTS10941/PF3838, CTS11369/PF3840, CTS11441, CTS11540/PF3842, CTS11779/PF3844, CTS11979/PF3878, FI2/YSC0000281, FI3/L756/PF3662/YSC0000284, FI4/PF3668, FGC2411/Y1877, FGC2412/Y1909, FGC2413/Y1869, FGC2414/Y1903, FGC2415/Y1880, FGC2416/S10441/Y1865, FGC2417, FGC2418/Y1841, FGC2419, FGC2420/Y1907, FGC2421/Y1931, FGC2424, FGC2443/Y1834, FCG2447, FGC2453, FGC2456, FGC2458/Y1942, FGC2467, FGC3436, FGC7049, FGC7050, L41/PF3787, L503, L578/PF3653, L751/PF3779/YSC0000291, L755/PF3659/YSC0000283, L758/PF3663/YSC0000285, L772/PF3731/YSC0000263, L844/PF3572/YSC0000275, L846/PF3646/YSC0000280, L847/PF3841/YSC0000298, L1197/PF3718/YSC0000260, M258/PF3721, M1460/PF3816, M11064/PF3634, P19_1, P19_2, P19_3, P19_4, P19_5, P38, P212/PF3580, PF3742/U179, PF3574, PF3575, PF3578, PF3585, PF3586, PF3588, PF3589, PF3590, PF3592, PF3594, PF3596, PF3599, PF3600, PF3601, PF3602, PF3603, PF3604, PF3605, PF3611, PF3612, PF3616, PF3617, PF3618, PF3620, PF3622, PF3625, PF3627.2/V218.2, PF3639, PF3640, PF3641, PF3642, PF3645, PF3649, PF3654, PF3660, PF3661, PF3665, PF3666, PF3670, PF3672, PF3675, PF3677, PF3685, PF3687, PF3689, PF3694, PF3695, PF3742/U179, PF3759/YSC0000267, PF3780, PF3794, PF3795, PF3796, PF3797, PF3799, PF3800, PF3803, PF3804, PF3806, PF3807, PF3809, PF3811, PF3813, PF3814, PF3815, PF3817, PF3819, PF3822, PF3828, PF3829, PF3833, PF3836, PF3837, PF3847/YSC0000300, PF3864, Y1847, YSC0000256, YSC0000272, Z16984, Z16985, Z16986, Z16987
I*   -
I1   M253, CTS5783/S63, CTS11042/S66, L64, L75, L80, L81, L118, L121/S62, L123, L124/S64, L125/S65, L157.1, L186, L187, L840, L845/S110/YSC0000278, M307.2/P203.2, M450/S109, P30, P40, S107, S108, S111/Y1868
• • I1*   -
• • I1a   DF29/S438
• • • I1a*   -
• • • I1a1   CTS6364/Z2336
• • • • I1a1*   -
• • • • I1a1a   M227
• • • •  I1a1a*   -
• • • •  I1a1a1   M72
• • • • I1a1b   L22/S142
• • • •  I1a1b*   -
• • • •  I1a1b1   P109
• • • •  I1a1b2   L205.1/L939.1/S239.1
• • • •  I1a1b3   Z74
• • • •  I1a1b3*   -
• • • •  I1a1b3a   L287/S240
• • • •  • • I1a1b3a*   -
• • • •  • • I1a1b3a1   L258/S335
• • • •  • • • I1a2b3a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I1a1b3a1a   L296
• • • •  I1a1b3b   L813/S436/Z719
• • • •  I1a1b4   L300/S241
• • • I1a2    S244/Z58
• • • • I1a2*   -
• • • • I1a2a   S246/Z59
• • • •  I1a2a*   -
• • • •  I1a2a1   S337/Z60, S439/Z61, Z62
• • • •  I1a2a1*   -
• • • •  I1a2a1a   S440/Z140, Z141
• • • •  • • I1a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • I1a2a1a1   S1953/Z2535
• • • •  • • • I1a2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I1a2a1a1a   S1954/YSC0000261
• • • •  • • • • I1a2a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I1a2a1a1a1   L338/S197
• • • •  • • • I1a2a1a1b   CTS10937/S4698/Z2538
• • • •  • • I1a2a1a2   F2642/S2169
• • • •  • • I1a2a1a3   A196
• • • •  I1a2a1b   S247/Z73
• • • •  • • I1a2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • I1a2a1b1   L1302
• • • •  I1a2a1c   L573
• • • •  I1a2a1d   L1248
• • • •  • • I1a2a1d*   -
• • • •  • • I1a2a1d1   L803
• • • •  I1a2a2   Z382
• • • • I1a2b   S296/Z138, Z139/S338, PF2805.2/Z2540.2
• • • •  I1a2b*   -
• • • •  I1a2b1   Z2541
• • • I1a3   S243/Z63
• • • • I1a3*   -
• • • • I1a3a   BY151
• • • •  I1a3a*   -
• • • •  I1a3a1   L849.2
• • • •  I1a3a1*   -
• • • •  I1a3a1a   S2078
• • • •  • • I1a3a1a*   -
• • • •  • • I1a3a1a1   Y2245.2
• • • •  • • • I1a3a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I1a3a1a1a   L1237
• • • •  • • • I1a3a1a1b   S10360, S17023, S26266
• • • •  • • • • I1a3a1a1b*   -
• • • •  • • • • I1a3a1a1b1   S15301
• • I1b   S249/Z131
• • • I1b*   -
• • • I1b1   CTS6397
I2   L68/PF3781/S329, M438/P215/PF3853/S31
• • I2*   -
• • I2a   L460/PF3647/S238
• • • I2a*   -
• • • I2a1   P37.2/PF4004
• • • • I2a1*   -
• • • • I2a1a   L158/PF4073/S433, L159.1/S169.1, M26/PF4056
• • • •  I2a1a*   -
• • • •  I2a1a1   L672/S327
• • • •  I2a1a1*   -
• • • •  I2a1a1a   L160/PF4013/S184
• • • •  • • I2a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • I2a1a1a1   PF4088/S5312
• • • •  • • • I2a1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I2a1a1a1a   CTS11338/PF4194
• • • •  • • • • I2a1a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a1a1a1a1   PF4189
• • • •  • • • • I2a1a1a1a2   Z118
• • • •  • • I2a1a1a2   F1295
• • • • I2a1b   CTS176/S2621, CTS1293/S2632, CTS1802/S2638, CTS5375/S2679, CTS5985/S2687, CTS7218/S2702, CTS8239/S2715, CTS8486/S2722, CTS11030/S2768, L178/S328, M423
• • • •  I2a1b*   -
• • • •  I2a1b1   L161.1/S185
• • • •  I2a1b1*   -
• • • •  I2a1b1a   L1498
• • • •  I2a1b2   L621/S392
• • • •  I2a1b2*   -
• • • •  I2a1b2a   CTS10936
• • • •  • • I2a1b2a*   -
• • • •  • • I2a1b2a1   L147.2, CTS5966, CTS10228
• • • •  • • • I2a1b2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I2a1b2a1a   S17250
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1a1   Z16971
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1a2   Y4882
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1a3   A356/Z16983
• • • •  • • • I2a1b2a1b   Y4460
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a1b2a1b1   Y3118
• • • • I2a1c   L233/S183
• • • •  I2a1c*   -
• • • •  I2a1c1   A417
• • • • I2a1d   L880
• • • • I2a1e   L1294
• • • I2a2   L35/PF3862/S150, L37/PF6900/S153, L181, M436/P214/PF3856/S33, P216/PF3855/S30, P217/PF3854/S23, P218/S32
• • • • I2a2*   -
• • • • I2a2a   L34/PF3857/S151, L36/S152, L59, L368, L622, M223, P219/PF3859/S24, P220/S119, P221/PF3858/S120, P222/PF3861/U250/S118, P223/PF3860/S117, Z77
• • • •  I2a2a*   -
• • • •  I2a2a1   CTS616, CTS9183
• • • •  I2a2a1*   -
• • • •  I2a2a1a   Y3721
• • • •  • • I2a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • I2a2a1a1   M284
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1a1a   L1195
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a1a1   L126/S165, L137/S166, L369
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a1a1a   FGC20048/S7753/Y4171
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a1a1a1   Y4750
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a1a2   L1193
• • • •  • • I2a2a1a2   Z2057, Z2083, Z2093
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1a2*   -
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1a2a   L1229
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a2a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a2a1   Y3681, Z2069
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a2a1a   Z2058
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1a2a1a1   Z2054
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1a2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1a2a1a1a   L812/S391
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1a2a1a1b   P53.3
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1a2a1a1c   FGC15106/Y4334, Y4332
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1a2a2   L1230
• • • •  I2a2a1b   CTS10057, CTS10100
• • • •  • • I2a2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • I2a2a1b1   L701, L702
• • • •  • • I2a2a1b1*    -
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b1a   P78
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1b1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • I2a2a1b1a1   S25733
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1a1a   A427
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1a1a1   S23612, Y4884
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b1b   L699, L703
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1b*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b1b1   L704
• • • •  • • I2a2a1b2   Z161
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2*   -
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2a   L801/S390
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a1   CTS1977
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a1a   P95
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a1b   CTS1858
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2   CTS6433
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a   S2364
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a1   Z78
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1b2a2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1b2a2a1a   L1198
• • • •  • • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2a2a1a1   Z190
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a1a1a   S434/Z79
• • • •  • • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2a2a1a2   P195.2
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a2   ZS20
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1b2a2a2*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • I2a2a1b2a2a2a   CTS661/L1272
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2a3   Y4955
• • • •  • • • •  I2a2a1b2a2b   L1425
• • • •  • •  • I2a2a1b2a3   L1290, L1317
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2b   L623, L147.3
• • • •  • • • I2a2a1b2c   CTS11871/S3673
• • • •  I2a2a2   L1228
• • • • I2a2b   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65.1/S159.1, L272.3
• • • •  I2a2b*   -
• • • •  I2a2b1   L533/S295
• • I2b   L415/S435, L416, L417/S332
• • I2c   L596/PF6907/S292, L597/S333
• • • I2c*   -
• • • I2c1   PF3892, PF3904, PF3918, PF3924, PF3933
• • • • I2c1*   -
• • • • I2c1a   L1251
• • • • I2c1b   CTS7767.1

Frequently Mutating SNPs are SNPs that appear many times in many places either in one or more haplogroups. They are inconsistent and not useful for genealogical purposes.

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

Notes

Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:

References:

Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Battaglia et al, Y-chromosomal Evidence of the Cultural Diffusion of Agriculture in Southeast Europe European Journal of Human Genetics, 249. 2008.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Ghiani, et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics, 85:923-928, 2009.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b. (not available online)
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties), Ken Nordtvedt.
Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster, Phil Goff.
I1b* Project Database, Timothy Weakley.
Family Tree DNA Projects:
Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project, Bob Waterous, Bernie Cullen, Paul Stone.
I1 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project, Phil Goff, Aaron J. Hill, Steve Transgrud, Yme Drost, Ken Nordtvedt, William Hartley and Paul Stone.
I1>Z58+ and I1>Z63+ Project, Aaron Salles Torres, Paul Stone, William Hartley, Wim Penninx.
I1d - L22/S142 Project, Yme Drost, Albert Hulse.
I1d2 (L205+) Project, Yme Drost.
The I1-L1302 Project, Peter Sjölund, Jakob Norstedt-Moberg
I1-Z140 YDNA Project, William Hartley, Wim Penninx and Aleksandr Shtrunov.
Y-Haplogroup I2a Project, Bernie Cullen, Bill Morrow, Ken Nordtvedt, Zdenko Markovic.
I2b2 L38+ Project, Timothy Weakley, Hans Debeule, Ken Nordtvedt.
I2b L415 I2c L596 Haplogroup Project, Russ Livingstone, Bob May, Peter Hrechdakian, Ken Nordtvedt, Hovann Simonian.
Iberian I1 Project, Aaron Salles Torres.
I-L161 (I2a-Isles), Robert Gabel.
I-M223 Y-Haplogroup Project, Aaron Salles Torres, Wayne Roberts, Ken Nordtvedt, George Anthony, Scott Engel Stewart.
The I1d1 (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project, Rebekah Canada, Nicolas Taban.
I1 Eastern Europe, Aleksandr Shtrunov.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

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