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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2013 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
D M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355
• D* -
• D1 M15
• • D1* -
• • D1a N1
• D2 M55, M57, M64.1/Page44.1, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2
• • D2* -
• • D2a M116.1
• • • D2a* -
• • • D2a1 M125
• • • • D2a1* -
• • • • D2a1a P42
• • • • • D2a1a* -
• • • • • D2a1a1 P12_1, P12_2, P12_3
• • • • D2a1b CTS107/IMS-JST055457, IMS-JST022457
• • • • • D2a1b* -
• • • • • D2a1b1 P53.2
• • • • • D2a1b2 IMS-JST006841/Page3
• • • • • • D2a1b2* -
• • • • • • D2a1b2a CTS1982/Z1498, CTS3197, CTS3397, CTS4606/Z1499, Z3611, Z3642, Z3643
• • • • • • • D2a1b2a* -
• • • • • • • D2a1b2a1 CTS8181, CTS9242/Z1502, CTS10268, CTS10511/Z1503, Z1500, Z1501, Z3603, Z3605, Z3607, Z3610, Z3617, Z3636, Z3651, Z14780, Z14781
• • • • • • • • D2a1b2a1* -
• • • • • • • • D2a1b2a1a CTS1434, CTS8093, Z1504, Z14779
• • • • • • • • • D2a1b2a1a* -
• • • • • • • • • D2a1b2a1a1 CTS5406, Z14778
• • • D2a2 M151
• • • D2a3 P120
• • • D2a4 CTS6609
• • • • D2a4* -
• • • • D2a4a CTS504/Z1569, CTS741, CTS906/Z1570, CTS1897/Z1574, CTS2296, CTS2798, CTS3097/Z1575, CTS3906, CTS4219, CTS4305, CTS4517, CTS6090, CTS7590/Z1576, CTS8368, CTS8666, CTS10807, Z1568, Z1571, Z1572, Z1573, Z1578, Z1579, Z3838, Z3840, Z3844, Z3851, Z14867, Z14868, Z14869, Z14870, Z14871, Z14872, Z14873, Z14874, Z14875, Z14876, Z14877, Z14878, Z14879, Z14880
• • • • • D2a4a* -
• • • • • D2a4a1 CTS218/Z1527, CTS321/Z1528, CTS621, CTS1228/Z1533, CTS1670/Z1546, CTS2078/Z1547, CTS2378/Z1548, CTS2482, CTS3489/Z1549, CTS3636/Z1550, CTS5307, CTS5862/Z1552, CTS6303/Z1553, CTS6392, CTS6499, CTS6572/Z1554, CTS6859, CTS7234/Z1555, CTS7398, CTS7543, CTS7615/Z1556, CTS7999/Z1557, CTS8230, CTS8960/Z1558, CTS9028, CTS9335, CTS9902, CTS10793/Z1566, CTS11032, CTS11048, CTS11071/Z1567, CTS12720, IMS-JST022456, PF7228, Z1529, Z1530, Z1531, Z1534, Z1535, Z1538, Z1539, Z1540, Z1541, Z1542, Z1560, Z1561, Z1562, Z1563, Z1564, Z1565, Z3834, Z3839, Z3841, Z3843, Z3847, Z3849, Z3850, Z3852, Z3854, Z3855, Z3856, Z14820, Z14821, Z14822, Z14823, Z14824, Z14825, Z14826, Z14827, Z14828, Z14829, Z14830, Z14831, Z14832, Z14833, Z14834, Z14835, Z14836, Z14837, Z14838, Z14839, Z14840, Z14841, Z14842, Z14843, Z14844, Z14845, Z14846, Z14847, Z14848, Z14849, Z14850, Z14851, Z14852, Z14853, Z14854, Z14855, Z14856, Z14857, Z14858, Z14859, Z14860, Z14861, Z14862, Z14863, Z14864, Z14865, Z14866
• • • • • • D2a4a1* -
• • • • • • D2a4a1a CTS6909, Z14802, Z14804, Z14805, Z14806, Z14807, Z14809, Z14810, Z14811, Z14812, Z14814, Z14818
• • • • • D2a4a2 CTS1964, CTS6511, M6525, Z14881, Z14882, Z14883, Z14884, Z14885, Z14886, Z14887, Z14888
• • D2b CTS131, CTS583/Z1516, CTS881/Z1517, CTS1352, CTS1592, CTS2098/Z1520, CTS2712, CTS2820, CTS3798, CTS3808, CTS3879, CTS4645/Z1521, CTS6144/Z1522, CTS6908, CTS7457, CTS8057/Z1523, CTS8075, CTS8327, CTS8635, CTS9143, CTS11368, Z1515, Z1518, Z1519, Z1524, Z1526, Z3801, Z3810, Z3811, Z3822, Z3823, Z3824, Z3827, Z3832, Z3833, Z14793, Z14794, Z14795, Z14796, Z14797, Z14798, Z14799, Z14800
• • • D2b* -
• • • D2b1 CTS220, CTS709, CTS1333, CTS1439/Z1505, CTS2259, CTS2940, CTS3320/Z1508, CTS5302, CTS6287/Z1510, CTS6342/Z1511, CTS10054, CTS11474, CTS11619, L495.2/Z2788.2, Z1506, Z1507, Z1514, Z3807, Z3814, Z3819, Z14782, Z14783, Z14784, Z14785, Z14786, Z14787, Z14788, Z14789, Z14790, Z14791, Z14792
• D3 P99
• • D3* -
• • D3a P47
• • • D3a* -
• • • D3a1 M533
• D4 L1366, L1378, M226.2
Experimental D Tree by Ray Banks.Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup D is seen primarily in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and in Japan and was established approximately 50,000 years ago. Sub-group D1 (D-M15) is seen in Tibet, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the sub-groups D* (D-M174) and D3 (D-P47) are seen in Central Asia. The sub-group D2 (D-M55) is seen almost exclusively in Japan. The high frequency of haplogroup D in Tibet (about 50%) and in Japan (about 35%) implies some early migratory connection between these areas. Examination of the genetic diversity seen in sub-group D2 in Japan implies that this group has been isolated in Japan for between 12,000-20,000 years. The highest frequencies of D2 in Japan are seen among the Ainu and the Ryukyuans.
An isolated incidence of haplogroup D has also been seen in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. This implies that the group may once have had a much greater range, but has subsequently been displaced by more recent population events.
Cristofaro et al,
Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge.
PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748, 2013.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Naitoh S, et al, Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs Found in Japanese Population to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup tree. Journal of Human Genetics, 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.159, 2013.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Earliest Modern Human Settlement in East Asia and Multiple Origins of Tibetan and Japanese Populations. (abstract) BMC Biology 2008, 6:45, 2008.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age, (pdf), American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
D Haplogroup (YDNA) Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:
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