Y-DNA Haplogroup D and its Subclades - 2014
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 9 March 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage,
testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks

D   M174/Page30, IMS-JST021355
D*   -
D1   M15
• • D1*   -
• • D1a   N1
D2   M55, M57, M64.1/Page44.1, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2
• • D2*   -
• • D2a   M116.1
• • • D2a*   -
• • • D2a1   M125
• • • • D2a1*   -
• • • • D2a1a   P42
• • • •  D2a1a*   -
• • • •  D2a1a1   P12_1, P12_2, P12_3
• • • • D2a1b   CTS107/IMS-JST055457, IMS-JST022457
• • • •  D2a1b*   -
• • • •  D2a1b1   P53.2
• • • •  D2a1b2   IMS-JST006841/Page3
• • • •  D2a1b2*   -
• • • •  D2a1b2a   CTS1982/Z1498, CTS3197, CTS3397, CTS4606/Z1499, Z3611, Z3642, Z3643
• • • •  • • D2a1b2a*   -
• • • •  • • D2a1b2a1   CTS8181, CTS9242/Z1502, CTS10268, CTS10511/Z1503, Z1500, Z1501, Z3603, Z3605, Z3607, Z3610, Z3617, Z3636, Z3651, Z14780, Z14781
• • • •  • • • D2a1b2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • D2a1b2a1a   CTS1434, CTS8093, Z1504, Z14779
• • • •  • • • • D2a1b2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • D2a1b2a1a1   CTS5406, Z14778
• • • D2a2   M151
• • • D2a3   P120
• • • D2a4   CTS6609
• • • • D2a4*   -
• • • • D2a4a   CTS504/Z1569, CTS741, CTS906/Z1570, CTS1897/Z1574, CTS2296, CTS2798, CTS3097/Z1575, CTS3906, CTS4219, CTS4305, CTS4517, CTS6090, CTS7590/Z1576, CTS8368, CTS8666, CTS10807, Z1568, Z1571, Z1572, Z1573, Z1578, Z1579, Z3838, Z3840, Z3844, Z3851, Z14867, Z14868, Z14869, Z14870, Z14871, Z14872, Z14873, Z14874, Z14875, Z14876, Z14877, Z14878, Z14879, Z14880
• • • •  D2a4a*   -
• • • •  D2a4a1   CTS218/Z1527, CTS321/Z1528, CTS621, CTS1228/Z1533, CTS1670/Z1546, CTS2078/Z1547, CTS2378/Z1548, CTS2482, CTS3489/Z1549, CTS3636/Z1550, CTS5307, CTS5862/Z1552, CTS6303/Z1553, CTS6392, CTS6499, CTS6572/Z1554, CTS6859, CTS7234/Z1555, CTS7398, CTS7543, CTS7615/Z1556, CTS7999/Z1557, CTS8230, CTS8960/Z1558, CTS9028, CTS9335, CTS9902, CTS10793/Z1566, CTS11032, CTS11048, CTS11071/Z1567, CTS12720, IMS-JST022456, PF7228, Z1529, Z1530, Z1531, Z1534, Z1535, Z1538, Z1539, Z1540, Z1541, Z1542, Z1560, Z1561, Z1562, Z1563, Z1564, Z1565, Z3834, Z3839, Z3841, Z3843, Z3847, Z3849, Z3850, Z3852, Z3854, Z3855, Z3856, Z14820, Z14821, Z14822, Z14823, Z14824, Z14825, Z14826, Z14827, Z14828, Z14829, Z14830, Z14831, Z14832, Z14833, Z14834, Z14835, Z14836, Z14837, Z14838, Z14839, Z14840, Z14841, Z14842, Z14843, Z14844, Z14845, Z14846, Z14847, Z14848, Z14849, Z14850, Z14851, Z14852, Z14853, Z14854, Z14855, Z14856, Z14857, Z14858, Z14859, Z14860, Z14861, Z14862, Z14863, Z14864, Z14865, Z14866
• • • •  D2a4a1*   -
• • • •  D2a4a1a   CTS6909, Z14802, Z14804, Z14805, Z14806, Z14807, Z14809, Z14810, Z14811, Z14812, Z14814, Z14818
• • • •  D2a4a2   CTS1964, CTS6511, M6525, Z14881, Z14882, Z14883, Z14884, Z14885, Z14886, Z14887, Z14888
• • D2b   CTS131, CTS583/Z1516, CTS881/Z1517, CTS1352, CTS1592, CTS2098/Z1520, CTS2712, CTS2820, CTS3798, CTS3808, CTS3879, CTS4645/Z1521, CTS6144/Z1522, CTS6908, CTS7457, CTS8057/Z1523, CTS8075, CTS8327, CTS8635, CTS9143, CTS11368, Z1515, Z1518, Z1519, Z1524, Z1526, Z3801, Z3810, Z3811, Z3822, Z3823, Z3824, Z3827, Z3832, Z3833, Z14793, Z14794, Z14795, Z14796, Z14797, Z14798, Z14799, Z14800
• • • D2b*   -
• • • D2b1   CTS220, CTS709, CTS1333, CTS1439/Z1505, CTS2259, CTS2940, CTS3320/Z1508, CTS5302, CTS6287/Z1510, CTS6342/Z1511, CTS10054, CTS11474, CTS11619, L495.2/Z2788.2, Z1506, Z1507, Z1514, Z3807, Z3814, Z3819, Z14782, Z14783, Z14784, Z14785, Z14786, Z14787, Z14788, Z14789, Z14790, Z14791, Z14792
D3   P99
• • D3*   -
• • D3a   P47
• • • D3a*   -
• • • D3a1   M533
D4   L1366, L1378, M226.2

Experimental D Tree by Ray Banks.

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.


Y-DNA haplogroup D is seen primarily in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and in Japan and was established approximately 50,000 years ago. Sub-group D1 (D-M15) is seen in Tibet, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the sub-groups D* (D-M174) and D3 (D-P47) are seen in Central Asia. The sub-group D2 (D-M55) is seen almost exclusively in Japan. The high frequency of haplogroup D in Tibet (about 50%) and in Japan (about 35%) implies some early migratory connection between these areas. Examination of the genetic diversity seen in sub-group D2 in Japan implies that this group has been isolated in Japan for between 12,000-20,000 years. The highest frequencies of D2 in Japan are seen among the Ainu and the Ryukyuans.

An isolated incidence of haplogroup D has also been seen in the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean. This implies that the group may once have had a much greater range, but has subsequently been displaced by more recent population events.


Cristofaro et al, Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge. PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748, 2013.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Naitoh S, et al, Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs Found in Japanese Population to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup tree. Journal of Human Genetics, 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.159, 2013.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Earliest Modern Human Settlement in East Asia and Multiple Origins of Tibetan and Japanese Populations. (abstract) BMC Biology 2008, 6:45, 2008.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age, (pdf), American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
D Haplogroup (YDNA) Project, Ray Banks.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

Back to Main Page
Back to Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Back to SNP Index
Back to Papers/Presentations Cited
Back to Glossary
Back to Listing Criteria

Copyright 2014 International Society of Genetic Genealogy. All Rights Reserved.