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Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Ray Banks if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2015 tree Confirmed within subclade Investigational items|
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact Person for Haplogroup D: Ray Banks
D M174/Page30, CTS94, CTS1014.2,
CTS1171, CTS1582, CTS7660, CTS8880/Z1613, F975, F1034, F1066, F1137/Z1591, F1278, F1306, F1344,
F1379, F1439, F1447, F1533, F1612, F1620.1, F1690, F1927, F2062, F2147/Z1608, F2161/Z1610, F2318, F2325, F2455,
F2510, F2662/Z1612, F2765, F2923, F2956, F3289, F3321, F3328/Z1620, F3370, F3519, F3572, F3666, F3707, F3835, F3845/Z1588,
F3920, F4030, IMS-JST021355
• D1 CTS11577
• • D1a Z27276, Z27283, Z29263
• • • D1a1 M15
• • • • D1a1a N1
• • • D1a2 P99
• • • • D1a2a P47
• • • • • D1a2a1 M533
• • D1b M64.1/Page44.1, M55, M57, M179/Page31, M359.1/P41.1, P37.1, P190, 12f2.2
• • • D1b1 M116.1
• • • • D1b1a M125
• • • • D1b1a~IMS-JST75888-GC
• • • • • D1b1a1 P42
• • • • • • D1b1a1a P12_1, P12_2, P12_3
• • • • • D1b1a2 IMS-JST022457, CTS107/IMS-JST055457
• • • • • D1b1a2~Z1476
• • • • • • D1b1a2a P53.2
• • • • • • D1b1a2b IMS-JST006841/Page3
• • • • • • D1b1a2b~ IMS-JST119166
• • • • • • • D1b1a2b1 CTS3397, CTS1982/Z1498, CTS3197, CTS4606/Z1499, Z3611, Z3642, Z3643
• • • • • • • • D1b1a2b1a Z1500, CTS8181, CTS9242/Z1502, CTS10268, CTS10511/Z1503, Z1501, Z3603, Z3605, Z3607, Z3610, Z3617, Z3636, Z3651, Z14780, Z14781
• • • • • • • • • D1b1a2b1a1 Z1504, CTS1434, CTS8093, Z14779
• • • • • • • • • • D1b1a2b1a1a CTS5406, Z14778
• • • • • • • • • • • D1b1a2b1a1a1 FGC6373
• • • • D1b1b~M151
• • • • D1b1c~P120
• • • • D1b1d CTS6609
• • • • • D1b1d1 CTS1897/Z1574, CTS504/Z1569, CTS741, CTS906/Z1570, CTS2296, CTS2798, CTS3097/Z1575, CTS3906, CTS4219, CTS4305, CTS4517, CTS6090, CTS7590/Z1576, CTS8368, CTS8666, CTS10807, Z1568, Z1571, Z1572, Z1573, Z1578, Z1579, Z3838, Z3840, Z3844, Z3851, Z14867, Z14868, Z14869, Z14870, Z14871, Z14872, Z14873, Z14874, Z14875, Z14876, Z14877, Z14878, Z14879, Z14880
• • • • • • D1b1d1a CTS218/Z1527, CTS321/Z1528, CTS356/Z1532, CTS621, CTS1228/Z1533, CTS1670/Z1546, CTS2078/Z1547, CTS2378/Z1548, CTS2482, CTS3489/Z1549, CTS3636/Z1550, CTS5307, CTS5862/Z1552, CTS6303/Z1553, CTS6392, CTS6499, CTS6572/Z1554, CTS6859, CTS7234/Z1555, CTS7398, CTS7543, CTS7615/Z1556, CTS7999/Z1557, CTS8230, CTS8960/Z1558, CTS9028, CTS9335, CTS9902, CTS10793/Z1566, CTS11032, CTS11048, CTS11071/Z1567, CTS12720, IMS-JST022456, PF7228, Z1529, Z1530, Z1531, Z1534, Z1535, Z1538, Z1539, Z1540, Z1541, Z1542, Z1560, Z1561, Z1562, Z1563, Z1564, Z1565, Z3834, Z3839, Z3841, Z3843, Z3847, Z3849, Z3850, Z3852, Z3854, Z3855, Z3856, Z14820, Z14821, Z14822, Z14823, Z14824, Z14825, Z14826, Z14827, Z14828, Z14829, Z14830, Z14831, Z14832, Z14833, Z14834, Z14835, Z14836, Z14837, Z14838, Z14839, Z14840, Z14841, Z14842, Z14843, Z14844, Z14845, Z14846, Z14847, Z14848, Z14849, Z14850, Z14851, Z14852, Z14853, Z14854, Z14855, Z14856, Z14857, Z14858, Z14859, Z14860, Z14861, Z14862, Z14863, Z14864, Z14865, Z14866
• • • • • • • D1b1d1a1 CTS4617
• • • • • • • • D1b1d1a1a CTS6909, CTS1614/Z1545, Z14802, Z14804, Z14805, Z14806, Z14807, Z14809, Z14810, Z14811, Z14812, Z14814, Z14818
• • • • • • D1b1d1b CTS1964, CTS6511, M6525, Z14881, Z14882, Z14883, Z14884, Z14885, Z14886, Z14887, Z14888
• • • D1b2 CTS583/Z1516, CTS131, CTS881/Z1517, CTS1352, CTS1592, CTS2098/Z1520, CTS2712, CTS2820, CTS3798, CTS3808, CTS3879, CTS4645/Z1521, CTS6144, CTS6908, CTS7457, CTS7467, CTS8057/Z1523, CTS8075, CTS8327, CTS8635, CTS9143, CTS11368, Z1515, Z1518, Z1519, Z1524, Z1526, Z3801, Z3810, Z3811, Z3822, Z3823, Z3824, Z3827, Z3832, Z3833, Z14793, Z14794, Z14795, Z14796, Z14797, Z14798, Z14799, Z14800, Z17170, Z17171
• • • • D1b2a CTS220, CTS709, CTS1333, CTS1439/Z1505, CTS2259, CTS2940, CTS3320/Z1508, CTS4158/Z1509, CTS5302, CTS5941, CTS6287/Z1510, CTS6342/Z1511, CTS10054, CTS10126, CTS11474, CTS11619, L495.2/Z2788.2, Z1506, Z1507, Z1514, Z3807, Z3814, Z3819, Z14782, Z14783, Z14784, Z14785, Z14786, Z14787, Z14788, Z14789, Z14790, Z14791, Z14792, Z17172, Z17174, Z17175
• • • • • D1b2a1 CTS10495, Z17173, Z17176
• • • • • D1b2a2 CTS11285, Z17254, Z17255, Z17256, Z17257, Z17258
• D2 L1366, L1378, M226.2
Y-DNA haplogroup D is seen primarily in Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and in Japan and was established approximately 50,000 years ago. Subgroup D-M15 is seen in Tibet, Mongolia, Central Asia, and Southeast Asia, and the subgroup D-P47 is seen in Central Asia. The subgroup D-M55 is seen almost exclusively in Japan. The high frequency of haplogroup D in Tibet (about 50%) and in Japan (about 35%) implies some early migratory connection between these areas. Examination of the genetic diversity seen in subgroup D-M55 in Japan implies that this group has been isolated in Japan for between 12,000-20,000 years. The highest frequencies of D-M55 in Japan are seen among the Ainu and the Ryukyuans. Subgroup D-L1366 is so far noted only in the Philippines.
Cristofaro et al,
Afghan Hindu Kush: Where Eurasian Sub-Continent Gene Flows Converge.
PLoS ONE 8(10): e76748. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0076748, 2013.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out of Africa. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1014-1022, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Ewis et al, Two Y-chromosome-specific polymorphisms 12f2 and DFFRY in the Japanese population and their relations to other Y-polymorphisms, The Journal of Medical Investigation, 49(1-2):44-50, 2001.
Gayden et al, The Himalayas as a Directional Barrier to Gene Flow. American Journal of Human Genetics, 80(5):884-894, 2007.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Naitoh S, et al, Assignment of Y-chromosomal SNPs Found in Japanese Population to Y-chromosomal Haplogroup tree. Journal of Human Genetics, 2013 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2012.159, 2013.
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Rozen et al, Remarkably Little Variation in Proteins Encoded by the Y Chromosome's Single-Copy Genes, Implying Effective Purifying Selection. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2009 December 11; 85(6): 923-928.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Earliest Modern Human Settlement in East Asia and Multiple Origins of Tibetan and Japanese Populations. (abstract) BMC Biology 2008, 6:45, 2008.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age, (pdf), American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue et al, A Spatial Analysis of Genetic Structure of Human Populations in China Reveals Distinct Difference between Maternal and Paternal Lineages. European Journal of Human Genetics, 16:705-17, 2008.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
D Haplogroup (YDNA) Project, Ray Banks.
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