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Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
|LINKS: Main Page Y-DNA Tree Trunk SNP Index Papers/Presentations Cited Glossary Listing Criteria|
|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Redefined|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2014 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private Investigation|
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Paragroups, subclades ending with an asterisk (*) indicate that some individuals do not test positive for any snps downstream. Since this fact is commonly known, paragroups are being omitted to simplify the display of SNPs.
Contact Person for Haplogroup C: Ray H. Banks
C M130/Page51/RPS4Y711, M216,
P260/P324, Page85, V77, V183, V199, V232
• C1 F3393/Z1426
• • C1a CTS11043
• • • C1a1 M8, CTS219, CTS231, CTS483, CTS667, CTS1208, CTS1994, CTS2278, CTS2609, CTS3357, CTS3368/PF693, CTS3370, CTS3487, CTS3825, CTS4198, CTS4318/Z1392, CTS4324, CTS4866, CTS5312/Z1394, CTS5794/Z1396, CTS5942, CTS6670, CTS7285, CTS8419, CTS8781, CTS9122, CTS9291, CTS9351, CTS10312/Z1412, CTS11072/Z1425, CTS11382/Z1428, CTS11581/Z1429, CTS11893/Z1430, IMS-JST037816, M105, M131, P122
• • • • C1a1a P121
• • • • • C1a1a1 CTS6678, CTS10729, CTS11058, Z7054, Z7174, Z7180, Z7190, Z7196, Z7643, Z7650, Z7842, Z7968, Z7972, Z7985, Z7986, Z7988, Z7989, Z7991
• • • • • C1a1a2 Z1356, CTS7128/Z1357, Z4160, Z7156, Z7159, Z7162, Z7228, Z7231, Z7232, Z7234, Z7237, Z7856, Z7869, Z7870, Z7898, Z7899, Z7900, Z7901, Z7902, Z7903, Z7904
• • • C1a2 V20, FGC14605, FGC22157, M1009, S23981, V71, V86, V182, V184, V219, Z28000, Z28001, Z28003, Z28004, Z28005, Z28006, Z28007, Z28009, Z28011, Z28014, Z28015, Z28016, Z28017, Z28768, Z28771, Z28772, Z28773, Z28774, Z28776, Z28777, Z28779, Z28780, Z28784, Z28785, Z28786, Z28788, Z28789, Z28790, Z28792, Z28794, Z28795, Z28796, Z28797, Z28798, Z28799, Z28801, Z28803, Z28804, Z28805, Z28808, Z28809, Z28810, Z28811, Z28814, Z28815, Z28816, Z28818, Z28820, Z28821, Z28822, Z28823, Z28825, Z28828, Z28830, Z28831, Z28832, Z28833, Z28834, Z28835, Z28836, Z28837, Z28838, Z28840, Z28842, Z28843, Z28844, Z28845, Z22847, Z22849, Z22850, Z28851, Z28852, Z28853, Z28855, Z28857, Z28858, Z28859, Z28860, Z28861, Z28862, Z28863, Z28864, Z28865, Z28866, Z28867, Z28868, Z28869, Z28870, Z28872, Z28873, Z28874, Z28875, Z28876, Z28877, Z28880, Z28883, Z28884, Z28885, Z28889, Z28890, Z28891, Z28893, Z28894, Z28897, Z28898, Z28899, Z28900, Z28902, Z28903, Z28904, Z28905, Z28907, Z28910, Z28911, Z28912, Z28913, Z28914, Z28915, Z28917, Z28918, Z28919, Z28920, Z28922, Z28924, Z28925, Z28926, Z28927, Z28928, Z28929, Z28930, Z28931, Z28932, Z28936, Z28937, Z28938, Z28939, Z28940, Z28941, Z28944, Z28945, Z28946, Z28947, Z28948, Z28950, Z28951, Z28954, Z28959, Z28960, Z28963, Z28964, Z28965, Z28966, Z28967, Z28968, Z28969, Z28972, Z28973, Z28974, Z28975, Z28977, Z28978, Z28979, Z28982, Z28983, Z28984, Z28985, Z28986, Z28987, Z28988, Z28989, Z28991, Z28992, Z28995, Z28996, Z28997, Z28998, Z28999, Z29000, Z29001, Z29002, Z29003, Z29004, Z29005, Z29007, Z29008, Z29009, Z29010, Z29011, Z29012, Z29013, Z29015, Z29018, Z29019, Z29020, Z29022, Z29023, Z29024, Z29320, Z29321, Z29322, Z29323, Z29324, Z29325, Z29326, Z29327, Z29328
• • • • C1a2a V222, A701, FGC15334, FGC15527, Z28002, Z28008, Z28767, Z28775, Z28778, Z28781, Z28782, Z28783, Z28787, Z28791, Z28800, Z28802, Z28806, Z28807, Z28812, Z28813, Z28817, Z28819, Z28824, Z28826, Z28827, Z28839, Z28841, Z28846, Z28848, Z28854, Z28856, Z28871, Z28878, Z28879, Z28881, Z28882, Z28886, Z28888, Z28892, Z28895, Z28901, Z28906, Z28908, Z28909, Z28916, Z28921, Z28923, Z28933, Z28934, Z28935, Z28949, 28952, Z28953, Z28955, Z28956, Z28957, Z28958, Z28970, Z28971, Z28980, Z28981, Z28990, Z28993, Z28994, Z29006, Z29014, Z29016, Z29017, Z29021
• • • • C1a2b Z29329
• • C1b F1370, Z16480
• • • C1b1 K281
• • • • C1b1a B66/Z16458, Z16449, Z16450, Z16451, Z16452, Z16453, Z16454, Z16455, Z16456, Z16457, Z16459, Z16460, Z16461, Z16462, Z16460, Z16461, Z16462, Z16463, Z16464, Z16465, Z16466, Z16467, Z16468, Z16469, Z16470, Z16471, Z16472, Z16473, Z16475, Z16476, Z16477, Z16478, Z16479, Z16482, Z16483, Z16484, Z16485, Z16486, Z16487, Z16488, Z16557, Z16558
• • • • • C1b1a1 M356
• • • • • • C1b1a P92, F930/K105, K43, K45, K59, K61, K69, K78, K83, K88, K90, K94, K99, K108, K129, K134, K141, K146, K147, K156, K161, K162, K181, K184, K185, K186, K187, K188, K205, K245, K246, K249, K252, K260, K261, K267, K280, K293, K310, K317, K319, K320, K323, K327, K331, K358, K377, K396, K398, K401, K402, K414, K415, K417, K426, K427, K435, Z12426, Z12427, Z12428, Z12429, Z12430, Z12431, Z12432, Z12433, Z12434, Z12435, Z12436, Z12437, Z12438, Z12439, Z12440, Z12441, Z12442, Z12443, Z12444, Z12445, Z12446, Z12447, Z12448, Z12449, Z12450, Z12451, Z12452, Z12453, Z12454, Z12455, Z12456, Z12457, Z12458, Z12459, Z12460, Z12461, Z12462, Z12463, Z12464, Z12465, Z12466, Z12467, Z12468, Z12469, Z12470, Z12471, Z12472, Z12473, Z12474, Z12475, Z12476, Z12477, Z12478, Z12479
• • • • • • • C1b1a1a1 Z5895, K40, K41, K56, K70, K74, K79, K102, K104, K113, K119, K136, K138, K153, K159, K175, K191, K195, K196, K197, K198, K223, K231, K234, K238, K258, K274, K277, K296, K297, K303, K308, K309, K324, K332, K333, K341, K361, K382, K395, K399, K400, K404, K406, K407, K412, K429, K434, Z12482, Z12483, Z12484, Z12485, Z12486, Z12487, Z12488, Z12489, Z12490, Z12491, Z12492, Z12493, Z12494, Z12495, Z12496
• • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a K96, K107, K131, K163, K233, K272, K283, K425, Z12480, Z12481, Z12497, Z12498, Z12499, Z12500, Z12502, Z12503
• • • • • •• • • C1b1a1a1a1 K42, K44, K60, K68, K77, K86, K101, K117, K118, K135, K140, K143, K209, K227, K235, K236, K244, K276, K300, K316, K338, K362, K418/Z12513, K444, Z12504, Z12505, Z12506, Z12507, Z12508, Z12509, Z12510.1/Z15303.1, Z12511, Z12512, Z12514
• • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a Z5896, K92, K225, K428, Z12515, Z12516, Z12517, Z12518, Z12519, Z12520
• • • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1 K193, Z12521
• • • • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a Z12522
• • • • • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a1 K466, K468, Z12527, Z12528
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a K469, K470, Z12530
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • C1b1a1a1a1a1a1a1 Z5898
• • • • • • C1b1a1b Z5899
• • • • • • • C1b1a1b1 Z5900, Z12318, Z12319, Z12320, Z12321, Z12322, Z12323, Z12324, Z12325, Z12326, Z12327, Z12328, Z12329, Z12330, Z12331, Z12332, Z12333, Z12334, Z12335, Z12336, Z12337, Z12338, Z12339, Z12340, Z12341, Z12342, Z12343, Z12344, Z12345, Z12346, Z12347, Z12348, Z12349, Z12350, Z12351, Z12352, Z12353, Z12354, Z12355, Z12356, Z12357, Z12358, Z12359, Z12360, Z12361, Z12362, Z12363, Z12364, Z12365, Z12366, Z12367, Z12368, Z12369, Z12370, Z12371, Z12372, Z12373, Z12374, Z12375, Z12376, Z12377, Z12378, Z12379, Z12380, Z12381, Z12382, Z12383, Z12384, Z12385, Z12386, Z12387, Z12388, Z12389, Z12390, Z12391, Z12392, Z12393, Z12394, Z12395, Z12396, Z12397, Z12398, Z12399, Z12400, Z12401, Z12402, Z12403, Z12404, Z12405, Z12406, Z12407, Z12408, Z12409, Z12410, Z12411, Z12412, Z12413, Z12414, Z12415, Z12416, Z12417, Z12418, Z12419, Z12420, Z12421, Z12422, Z12423, Z12424, Z12425
• • • • • C1b1a2 B65
• • • • • • C1b1a2a B67, Z32412, Z32413
• • • • • • C1b1a2b F725, F736, F741
• • • • • • • C1b1a2b1 B465, Z32182, Z32183
• • • C1b2 B477/Z31885, FGC10375.2, PF5328, PH1321, PH1421, PH255, PH3092, PH3244, PH3409, PH4087, PH4346, PH5401, SK1010, SK1013, Z31877, Z31878, Z31879, Z31880, Z31881, Z31882, Z31883, Z31884, Z31886, Z31887, Z31888, Z31889, Z31890
• • • • C1b2a M38
• • • • • C1b2a1 M208
• • • • • • C1b2a1a P33_1, P33_2, P33_3
• • • • • • C1b2a1b P54
• • • • • • C1b2a1c B460, Z32308, Z32309
• • • • C1b2b M347, P309
• • • • • C1b2b1 M210
• C2 M217, P44, Z1453
• • C2a M93
• • C2b L1373, F1396, F1906, F2386, F2661, F3348, F3447, F3738, F3752, F3769, F3776, F3783, F3787, F3805, F3831, F3847, F3851, F3904, F3914, F3923, F3929, F3950, F3951, F3954, F3972, F3977, F3980, F3981, F3982, F3986, F4012
• • • C2b1 F1699, F1788, F3927, F4032, FGC16324, FGC16362, FGC16611, Z22209, Z22210
• • • • C2b1a F3918
• • • • • C2b1a1 F4015
• • • • • • C2b1a1a P39
• • • • • • C2b1a1b F1756, F3985, F3613, F3647/M1923, F3825, F3844, F3868, F3896, F3937, F3955, F3971, F4006, F4017
• • • • • • • C2b1a1b1 F3830
• • • • C2b1b M48
• • • • • C2b1b1 M77, M86
• • • • • • C2b1b1a B469
• • • • • • • C2b1b1a1 B87, Z32853, Z32854
• • • • • • C2b1b1b B80, Z32868, Z32869
• • • • • • • C2b1b1b1 B471, Z32409, Z32410
• • • • • • • C2b1b1b2 B81, Z32876, Z32877
• • • • • C2b1b2 B90, Z32895, Z32896
• • • • • • C2b1b2a B92, Z32964, Z32965
• • • • C2b1c F1918, F4002, F966, F2007, F2914, F3747, F3770, F3779, F3791, F3795, F3810, F3827, F3834, F3897, F3919, F3932, F3939, F3945, F3991, F4023, F4031, F4141, M504, FGC16450/M546/Y4605
• • • • • C2b1c* =
• • • • • C2b1c1 M401
• • C2c P53.1
• • C2d P62
• • C2e F2613/Z1338
• • • C2e1 Z1300, CTS1019, CTS4021/Z1301, CTS4590, F2982, F3895, K37, Z3874, Z4040, Z8441, Z8446, Z12153, Z12252, Z12257, Z12258
• • • • C2e1a CTS2657, CTS11990, F3755, F3921, F3949, F3967, F4027, F4035, Z16231, Z16232, Z16233
• • • • • C2e1a1 CTS8579, F3737, F3739, F3836, F3883, F4040
• • • • • • C2e1a1a M407, F3784, F3785, F3850, F3853, F3864, Z31648, Z31649, Z31650, Z31651, Z31652, Z31653, Z31654, Z31655, Z31656, Z31657, Z31658, Z31659, Z31660, Z31661, Z31662, Z31663
• • • • • • • C2e1a1a1 B97, Z33003
• • • • C2e1b Z8440, F3880, Z3994, Z12209
• • • • • C2e1b1 F1319, F1673, F3777, F3797, F3799.1, Z12177, Z12179, Z12202, Z12205, Z12253, Z12254, Z12255, Z12256
• • • • • • C2e1b1a F3735, F3748, F3750/M4236, F3806
• • • • • C2e1b2 CTS3385
• • • C2e2 F845, CTS3958, CTS5126, CTS6704/M8145, CTS10923, CTS12931, K500, K502, K503, K504, K505, K506, K507, K508, K509, K510, K546, K547, K548, K549, K550, K551, K553, K554, Z12259, Z12260, Z12261, Z12262, Z12263, Z12264, Z12265, Z12266, Z12267, Z12268, Z12269, Z12270, Z12271, Z12272, Z12273, Z12274, Z12275
• • • • C2e2a K516, K511, K512, K513, K514, K515, K517, K518, K519, K520, K521, K522/K543, K523, K524, K525, K526, K527, K528, K529, K530, K531, K532, K533, K534, K536, K537, K538, K539, K540, K542, K544, K545, Z12276, Z12277, Z12278, Z12279, Z12280, Z12281, Z12282, Z12283, Z12284, Z12285, Z12286, Z12287, Z12288, Z12289, Z12290, Z12291, Z12292, Z12293, Z12294, Z12295, Z12296, Z12297, Z12298, Z12299, Z12300, Z12301, Z12302, Z12303, Z12304, Z12305, Z12306, Z12307, Z12308, Z12309, Z12310, Z12311, Z12312, Z12313, Z12314, Z12315, Z12316, Z12317
• • C2f F978/IMS-JST002613-27
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.
Y-DNA haplogroup C is thought to have arisen shortly after modern humans left Africa.
Descendants spread mostly through southern and eastern Asia, but branches developed also in the Americas,
islands south of Malaysia, Australia, central Asia and Europe.
C* is found on the Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka and in parts of SE Asia. The uncommon C1-M8 lineage appears to be restricted to Japan. C-M38 is found predominantly in New Guinea, Melanesia, and Polynesia. The C-M217 lineage is most common of them all and is believed to have originated in southeast or central Asia, spreading from there into northern Asia and the Americas. C-M217 is also found in low concentrations in eastern and central Europe, where it may represent evidence of the westward expansion of the Huns in the early Middle Ages and later the Mongols. Subhaplogroup P39 seems to be found only in the Americas. C-Z1338 combines both eastern and central Asian groups. C-M347 is found exclusively among aboriginal Australians and is dominant in that population. C-M356 has a significant presence in southern Asia. C-V20 is most common in Europe.
Using variation in STR markers, Zhong et al. in 2010 estimated the divergence times of some Hg C subgroups as they then existed as follows (thousands of years):
C-M8 41.9 ± 16.6
C-M356 33.3 ± 19.1
C-M217 32.6 ± 14.1
C-P39 14.5 ± 5.1
C-M48 9.3 ± 3.3
C-P53.1 14.4 ± 5.1
C-M407 12.0 ± 4.2
References:Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
C Haplogroup, Ed Martin, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup C Project, Ray Banks.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2015:
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