Y-DNA Haplogroup Q and its Subclades - 2014

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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 30 September 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage,
testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact people for Haplogroup Q: Leonard Trujillo and Vladimir Gurianov

Q   M242
Q*   -
Q1   P36.2, L232/S432, L273.1, L274
• • Q1*   -
• • Q1a   F903/L472, F3773/L474, F2676/L528, MEH2
• • • Q1a*   -
• • • Q1a1   F1096, F1215, F1251, F3243
• • • • Q1a1*   -
• • • • Q1a1a   F746/NWT01
• • • •  Q1a1a*   -
• • • •  Q1a1a1   M120, M265/N14
• • • • Q1a1b   M25, M143
• • • •  Q1a1b*   -
• • • •  Q1a1b1   L712
• • • •  Q1a1b1*   -
• • • •  Q1a1b1a   L713, L715, M365.3
• • • Q1a2   L56/S324, L57, CTS2656/L892, F2122/L942, M346
• • • • Q1a2*   -
• • • • Q1a2a   L53/S326, L55, L213, L331, L475, L476
• • • •  Q1a2a*   -
• • • •  Q1a2a1   L54
• • • •  Q1a2a1*   -
• • • •  Q1a2a1a   CTS11969, CTS11970
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1a1   L341.2, M3
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1a   M19
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1b   M194
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1c   M199, P106, P292
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1d   L663
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1e   SA01
• • • •  • • • Q1a2a1a1f   L766
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1a2   L804, L805
• • • •  Q1a2a1b   CTS1780, CTS2730, Z780
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1b1   L191
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1b2   L569, L570, L571
• • • •  Q1a2a1c   L330, L334
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1c*   -
• • • •  • • Q1a2a1c1   L329, L332, L333
• • • • Q1a2b   F835/L940
• • • •  Q1a2b*   -
• • • •  Q1a2b1   L527, L529.1, L639
• • • •  Q1a2b2   L933, L938, L941
• • • •  Q1a2b2*   -
• • • •  Q1a2b2a   L205.2/L939.2/S239.2
• • • • Q1a2c   M323
• • Q1b   L275, F108, F711/L612, F803, F815, F1082, F1126, F1169, F1337, F1528, F1537, F1858, F1875, F1974, F2023, F2145, F2313, F2343, F2440, F2628, F2657, F2777, F2851, F2894, F2934, F3084, F3121, F3193, F3207, F3389, F3621, L314, L606, Y1014, Y1015, Y1017, Y1018, Y1019, Y1020, Y1021, Y1022, Y1024, Y1025, Y1026, Y1027, Y1028, Y1029, Y1030, Y1032, Y1033, Y1034, Y1035, Y1036, Y1037, Y1038, Y1039, Y1040, Y1041, Y1042, Y1043, Y1044, Y1045, Y1046, Y1047, Y1049, Y1050, Y1051, Y1052, Y1053, Y1054, Y1055, Y1056, Y1057, Y1059, Y1060, Y1061, Y1062, Y1063, Y1064, Y1065, Y1066, Y1067, Y1068, Y1069, Y1071, Y1072, Y1073, Y1074, Y1075, Y1076, Y1077, Y1078, Y1079, Y1080, Y1081, Y1082, Y1083, Y1084, Y1085, Y1086, Y1087, Y1088, Y1089, Y1090, Y1091, Y1092, Y1093, Y1094, Y1095, Y1096, Y1097, Y1098, Y1099, Y1100, Y1101, Y1102, Y1103, Y1104, Y1105, Y1106, Y1107, Y1108, Y1109, Y1110, Y1111, Y1112, Y1113, Y1114, Y1115, Y1116, Y1117, Y1118, Y1119, Y1120, Y1121, Y1122, Y1123, Y1124, Y1125, Y1126, Y1127, Y1128, Y1129, Y1130, Y1131, Y1132, Y1133, Y1134, Y1135, Y1136, Y1137.2/Z1543.2, Y1139, Y1142, Y1153, Y1164, Y1166, Y1167, Y1169, Y1195, Y1220, Y1978, Y1979, Y1980, Y1981, Y1982, Y1983, Y1986, Y1988, Y1989, Y1991, Y1992, Y1993, Y1995, Y1996, Y2003, Y2009, Y2239
• • • Q1b*   -
• • • Q1b1   L214/S289, F1213, F1349, F1594, F1734, F1780, F1836, F1839, F2230, F2877, FGC1758/Y2013, FGC1767/Y2079, FGC1768/Y2090, FGC1770/Y2012, FGC1774/Y2016, FGC1775/Y2018, FGC1776/Y2019, FGC1777/Y2020, FGC1779/Y2021, FGC1780/Y2022, FGC1781/Y2024, FGC1782/Y2026, FGC1783/Y2027, FGC1784/Y2028, FGC1785/Y2029, FGC1788/Y2031, FGC1789/Y2032, FGC1790/Y2033, FGC1791/Y2034, FGC1792/Y2035, FGC1793/Y2036, FGC1794/Y2037, FGC1795/Y2038, FGC1796/Y2039, FGC1797/Y2040, FGC1798/Y2041, FGC1799/Y2042, FGC1801/Y2043, FGC1803/Y2044, FGC1804/Y2045, FGC1805/Y2046, FGC1807/Y2047, FGC1808/Y2049, FGC1809/Y2050, FGC1810/Y2051, FGC1812/Y2052, FGC1813/Y2053, FGC1814/Y2054, FGC1815/Y2055, FGC1817/Y2057, FGC1820/Y2058, FGC1825/Y2059, FGC1827/Y2060, FGC1830/Y2061, FGC1833/Y2062, FGC1834/Y2063, FGC1835/Y2064, FGC1836/Y2065, FGC1837/Y2066, FGC1838/Y2067, FGC1841/Y2068, FGC1842/Y2070, FGC1843/Y2071, FGC1844/Y2072, FGC1845/Y2073, FGC1850/Y2074, FGC1852/Y2075, FGC1854/Y2076, FGC1855/Y2080, FGC1856/Y2081, FGC1858/Y2082, FGC1861/Y2084, FGC1862/Y2085, FGC1863/Y2086, FGC1864/Y2087, FGC1865/Y2088, FGC1866/Y2089, FGC1869/Y2091, FGC1872/Y2092, FGC1873/Y2093, FGC1874/Y2094, FGC1875/Y2095, FGC1877/Y2097, FGC1881/Y2113, FGC1882/Y2114, FGC1988/Y2017, FGC4606/Y2361, FGC7656/Y2115, FGC7660/Y2025, L215/Page82/S325, M378/Page100, Y2048, Y2056
• • • • Q1b1*   -
• • • • Q1b1a   L245, FGC1759/Y2119, FGC1771/Y2117, FGC1773/Y2118, FGC1778/Y2120, FGC1800/Y2121, FGC1802/Y2122, FGC1806/Y2123, FGC1811/Y2124, FGC1816/Y2125, FGC1821/Y2126, FGC1823/Y2127, FGC1824/Y2128, FGC1826/Y2129, FGC1828/Y2130, FGC1829/Y2131, FGC1831/Y2217, FGC1832/Y2132, FGC1839/Y2133, FGC1840/Y2134, FGC1846/Y2136, FGC1847/Y2137, FGC1848/Y2138, FGC1849/Y2139, FGC1851/Y2140, FGC1853/Y2141, FGC1857/Y2142, FGC1859/Y2143, FGC1860/Y2204, FGC1868/Y2199, FGC1870/Y2145, FGC1871/Y2146, FGC1878/Y2147, FGC1879/Y2148, FGC1883/Y2195, FGC1941/Y2235, FGC1987/Y2116, FGC1989/Y2144, FGC7661/Y2135, FGC7662/Y2149
• • • •  Q1b1a*   -
• • • •  Q1b1a1   FGC1917/Y2209, FGC1904/Y2220, Y2229
• • • •  Q1b1a1*   -
• • • •  Q1b1a1a   FGC1897/Y2225, FGC1899/Y2224, FGC1906/Y2219, FGC1909/Y2218, FGC1911/Y2215, FGC1912/Y2213, FGC1915/Y2211, FGC1916/Y2210, FGC1918/Y2208, FGC1919/Y2207, FGC1921/Y2206, FGC1928/Y2201, FGC1934/Y2196
• • • •  • • Q1b1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • Q1b1a1a1   FGC1929/Y2200, FGC1886/Y2233, FGC1888/Y2232, FGC1890/Y2231, FGC1903/Y2221, FGC1910/Y2216, FGC1914/Y2212, FGC1923/Y2203, FGC1932/Y2198, FGC1933/Y2197
• • • • Q1b1b   FGC4607/Y2247, FGC4613/Y2246, FGC4618/Y2248, FGC4619/Y2249, FGC4620/Y2250, FGC4624/Y2251, FGC4626/Y2244, FGC4631/Y2255, FGC4635/Y2256, FGC4646/Y2263, FGC4656/Y2264, FGC4657/Y2265, FGC4659/Y2266, FGC4675/Y2269, FGC4676/Y2270, Y2245.1, Y2252, Y2268
• • • •  Q1b1b*   -
• • • •  Q1b1b1   L301
• • • Q1b2   Y1144, Y1138, Y1140, Y1141, Y1143, Y1145, Y1147, Y1148, Y1150, Y1151, Y1152, Y1154, Y1155, Y1156, Y1157, Y1158, Y1161, Y1162, Y1163, Y1168, Y1170, Y1171, Y1172, Y1173, Y1174, Y1176, Y1177, Y1178, Y1179, Y1181, Y1182, Y1183, Y1184, Y1185, Y1186, Y1187, Y1188, Y1189, Y1190, Y1191, Y1193.1, Y1196, Y1200, Y1202, Y1203, Y1204, Y1205, Y1206, Y1207, Y1208, Y1209, Y1210, Y1211, Y1212, Y1214, Y1215, Y1216, Y1217, Y1218, Y1219, Y1221, Y1222, Y1223, Y1224, Y1227, Y1228, Y1229, Y1230, Y1231, Y1232, Y1233, Y1234, Y1235, Y1236, Y1237, Y1238, Y1239, Y1241, Y1242, Y1243, Y1244, Y1245, Y1246, Y1247, Y1248, Y1250, Y1251, Y1252, Y1253, Y1255, Y1257, Y1258, Y1259, Y1260, Y1261, Y1262, Y1263, Y1264, Y1265, Y1266, Y1267, Y1268, Y1269

Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After investigation these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree: either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup Q arose in Central Asia and migrated through the Altai/Baikal region of northern Eurasia into the Americas. Today it is found in North Eurasia, with some exemplars in European populations. The Q1a3a1 sub-group is almost exclusively associated with Native American populations.

References:

Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524-539, 2003.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Dulik et al, Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome Variation Provides Evidence for a Recent Common Ancestry between Native Americans and Indigenous Altaians. (pdf) The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi: 10.1016/ajhg.2011.12.014, 2012(a).
Dulik et al, Y-chromosome Analysis Reveals Genetic Divergence and New Founding Native Lineages in Athapaskan- and Eskimoan-speaking Populations. (pdf) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8471-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118760109. Epub May 14, 2012(b).
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Geppert et al, Hierarchical Y-SNP Assay to Study the Hidden Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationship of Native Populations in South America, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 6 Oct 2010. [Epub ahead of print]
Gurianov et al, Phylogenetic Structure of Q-M378 Subclade Based on Full Y-Chromosome Sequencing, The Russian Journal of Genetic Genealogy, Rom 5, No 1.:84-102. 8 January 2014.
Jota et al, A New Subhaplogroup of Native American Y-Chromosomes from the Andes. Abstract. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011 Dec;146(4):553-9. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21519. Epub Sep 13, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Malhi et al, Distribution of Y Chromosomes among Native North Americans: A Study of Athapaskan Population History American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137:412-24, 2008.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Underhill et al, Detection of Numerous Y Chromosome Biallelic Polymorphisms by Denaturing High-performance Liquid Chromatography. (Abstract) Genome Research, 7(10):996-1005, 1997 Oct.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y-chromosome DNA Haplogroup Q, Rebekah Canada.
American Indian Q1a3a: the Q-M3 Haplogroup Project, Ana Oquendo Pabón.
American Indian DNA Project, Glinda Seabaugh.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

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