Y-DNA Haplogroup O and its Subclades - 2009
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 17 March 2009

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2008 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

O   M175, P186, P191, P196
       O*   -
       O1   MSY2.2
             O1*   -
             O1a   M119
                    O1a*   -
                    O1a1   M307.2/P203.2
                          O1a1*   -
                          O1a1a   M101
                    O1a2   M50, M103, M110
       O2   P31, M268
             O2*   -
             O2a   M95
                    O2a*   -
                    O2a1   M88, M111
                          O2a1*   -
                          O2a1a   PK4
                    O2a2   M297
             O2b   M176/SRY465, P49, 022454
                    O2b*   -
                    O2b1   47z
       O3   M122, P198
             O3*   -
             O3a   M324, P93, P197, P199, P200
                    O3a*   -
                    O3a1   DYS257/P27.2, M121
                    O3a2   M164
                    O3a3   P201/021354
                          O3a3*   -
                          O3a3a   M159
                          O3a3b   M7
                                 O3a3b*   -
                                 O3a3b1   M113, M188, M209
                                       O3a3b1*   -
                                       O3a3b1a   N4
                                       O3a3b1b   N5
                                 O3a3b2   P164
                          O3a3c   M134
                                 O3a3c*   -
                                 O3a3c1   M117, M133
                                       O3a3c1*   -
                                       O3a3c1a   M162
                                 O3a3c2   P101
                    O3a4   002611
                          O3a4*   -
                          O3a4a   P103
                    O3a5   M300
                    O3a6   M333

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup O probably originated in East Asia and later migrated into the South Pacific. The lineage expanded into Taiwan (high frequency in the aboriginal Taiwanese), Indonesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

O3 is the predominant sub-group in China. The O1 and O2a lineages are found in Southeast Asian populations of Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia and southern China. The O2b sub-group is of high frequency in the Japanese and Korean populations.

References:
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Hammer et al, Dual Origins of the Japanese: Common Ground for Hunter-gatherer and Farmer Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Journal of Human Genetics, 51:47-58, 2006.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Mohyuddin et al, Detection of Novel Y SNPs Provides Further Insights into Y Chromosomal Variation in Pakistan. Journal of Human Genetics, 2006.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Nonaka et al, Y Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups in the Japanese Population and their Relationship to 16 Y-STR Polymorphisms. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 71:480-495, 2007.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi S, Human Y Chromosomal Variations in European Populations (dissertation) Council of the Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Tartu, Oct 2004.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
<Shi et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence of Southern Origin of the East Asian-Specific Haplogroup O3-M122. (abstract) American Journal of Human Genetics. 77:408-419, 2005.
Su et al, Y-chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 65:1718-1724, 1999.
Tan S, et al, Y-chromosome Polymorphisms Define the Origin of the Mang, an Isolated Population in China. Annals of Human Biology, Sep;34(5):573-581, 2007
Thangaraj et al, Genetic Affinities of the Andaman Islanders, a Vanishing Human Population. (pdf) Current Biology, 13:86-93, 2003.
Xue Y, et al, Male Demography in East Asia: A North-South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times. (abstract) Genetics, 172:2431-2439, 2006

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2009:

Contact Person for Haplogroup O: Gareth Henson

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