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|CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS: Added Renamed|
|SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2006 tree Confirmed within subclade Provisional Private|
Note: A major reorganization has occurred in J2 per a recent article by Sengupta et al. There are conflicting models in the subclades under J2b (M12) from Semino's and Sengupta's studies which have not yet been fully resolved.
M304, S6, S34, S35
• J* -
• J1 M267
• • J1* -
• • J1a M62
• • J1b M365
• • J1c M367, M368
• • J1d M369
• • J1e M390
• J2 M172
• • J2* -
• • J2a M410
• • • J2a* -
• • • J2a1 DYS413≤18
• • • • J2a1* -
• • • • J2a1a M47, M322 (formerly J2a)
• • • • J2a1b M67/S51 (formerly J2f)
• • • • • J2a1b* -
• • • • • J2a1b1 M92, M260 (formerly a part of J2f1)
• • • • • • J2a1b1* -
• • • • • • J2a1b1a M327 (formerly a part of J2f1)
• • • • • J2a1b2 M163, M166 (formerly J2f2)
• • • • J2a1c M68 (formerly J2b)
• • • • J2a1d M137 (formerly J2c)
• • • • J2a1e M158 (formerly J2d)
• • • • J2a1f M289
• • • • J2a1g M318 (formerly J2k)
• • • • J2a1h M319 (formerly J2l)
• • • • J2a1i M339 (formerly J2g)
• • • • J2a1j M419
• • • • J2a1k DYS445≤7 (formerly known as J2x)
• • • J2a2 M340 (formerly J2h)
• • J2b M12, M314, M221 (formerly J2e)
• • • J2b* -
• • • J2b1 M102 (formerly J2e1)
• • • • J2b1* -
• • • • J2b1a M241 (formerly J2e1b)
• • • • • J2b1a* -
• • • • • J2b1a1 M99 (formerly J2e1a)
• • • • • J2b1a2 M280 (formerly J2e1c)
• • • • • J2b1a3 M321 (formerly J2e1b1)
• • • • J2b1b M205 (formerly J2e2, then J2b2)
Y-DNA haplogroup J evolved in the ancient Near East and was carried into North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan and India. J2 lineages originated in the area known as the Fertile Crescent. The main spread of J2 into the Mediterranean area is thought to have coincided with the expansion of agricultural peoples during the Neolithic period. The timing of the demographic events that brought J2 to Central Asia, Pakistan, and India is not yet known. J1 lineages may have a more southern origin, as they are more often found in the Levant region, other parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.
There is a descending gradient in the frequency of occurrence of haplogroup J from the Middle East toward the northwest of Europe, reaching about 3% of the population on the northwest Atlantic coast. The occurrence of J in Europe is undoubtedly due both to the Neolithic expansion and to episodic migrations, though the relative proportion of those two sources is controversial and may not be the same in different locations.
A significant fraction of Jews belong to haplogroup J, but Jews represent a small minority of the European members of the haplogroup. The "Cohen Modal Haplotype" is a specific set of six Y-STR marker values that occurs in both J1 and J2, though at a much higher frequency in J1. It is likely that those of Cohanim descent and carrying the CMH belong to the J1 haplogroup, though more study is needed.
Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of
Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Capelli et al, Population Structure in the Mediterranean Basin: A Y Chromosome Perspective. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Cruciani et al, Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12. (pdf) Molecular Biology and Evolution 24(6):1300-1311, 2007.
Di Giacomo et al, Y Chromosomal Haplogroup J as a Signature of the Post-Neolithic Colonization of Europe. (pdf) Human Genetics, 115:357-371, 2004.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, Paternal Population History of East Asia: Sources, Patterns, and Microevolutionary Processes. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 69:615-628, 2001.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Myers et al, (2007), Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat DYS458.2 Non-concensus Alleles Occur Independently in Both Binary Haplogroups J1-M267 and R1b3-M405. Croatian Medical Journal, 48, 2007.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69:401-412, 2005.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:265-268, 2002.
Semino et al, Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 74:1023-1034, 2004.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78:202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24:248-260, 2004.
Y Haplogroup J
Andreas O., The M410 Project
Bonnie Schrack and Jeff Schweitzer, The Y-Haplogroup J DNA Project
Ron Scott, J2: Frequency Distribution of Extended Haplotypes Gathered from YSearch
Costa Tsirigakis, J2 Y DNA group
Corrections/Additions made since 20 December 2006:
Contact People for Haplogroup J: Bonnie Schrack or Whit Athey
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