Y-DNA Haplogroup I and its Subclades - 2009
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Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 22 July 2009

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2008 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private

I   L41, M170, M258, P19, P38, P212, U179
       I*    - (unobserved)
      ; I1   L75, L80, L81, L118, L121, L123, L125, M253, M307.1/P203.1, M450/S109, P30, P40, S62, S63, S64, S65, S66, S107, S108, S110, S111
             I1*   -
             I1a   M21    (probably private)
             I1b   M227
                    I1b*   -
                    I1b1   M72
             I1c   P259    (probably private, location with respect to L22/S142 is uncertain)
             I1d   L22/S142
                    I1d*   -
                    I1d1   P109
             I1e   S79    (probably private, confirmed within I1, but exact location is uncertain)
       I2   L68, M438/P215/S31
             I2*   -
             I2a   P37.2
                    I2a*   -
                    I2a1   M26
                          I2a1*   -
                          I2a1a   M161
                          I2a1b   L158, L159, L160
                    I2a2   M423
                          I2a2*   -
                          I2a2a   L161
                          I2a2b   L69.2(=T)/S163.2   (See Notes)
                                 I2a2b1   P41.2/M359.2
             I2b   L35, L37, M436/P214/S33, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32
                    I2b*   -
                    I2b1   L34, L36, L59, M223, P219/S24, P220/S119, P221/S120, P222/U250/S118, P223/S117
                          I2b1*   -
                          I2b1a   M284
                                 I2b1a1   L126/S165, L137/S166
                          I2b1b   M379
                          I2b1c   P78
                          I2b1d   P95
                    I2b2   L38/S154, L39/S155, L40/S156, L65/S159

Notes

Y-DNA haplogroup I is a European haplogroup, representing nearly one-fifth of the population. It is almost non-existent outside of Europe, suggesting that it arose in Europe. Estimates of the age of haplogroup I suggest that it arose prior to the last Glacial Maximum.

The two main subgroups of haplogroup I likely divided approximately 28,000 years ago:

References:

Athey et al, Resolving the Placement of Haplogroup I-M223 in the Y-chromosome Phylogenetic Tree. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 1:54-55, 2005.
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Rootsi et al, Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow In Europe. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75:128-137, 2004.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. (Link and comments from Dienekes' Anthropological Blog) Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.
Sims et al, Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs. Human Mutation: Mutation in Brief #940, Online, 2007.
Underhill et al, New Phylogenetic Relationships for Y-chromosome Haplogroup I: Reappraising its Phylogeography and Prehistory. in Rethinking the Human Evolution, Mellars P, Boyle K, Bar-Yosef O, Stringer C, Eds. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, UK, pp. 33-42, 2007b.
Underhill et al, The Phylogeography of Y Chromosome Binary Haplotypes and the Origins of Modern Human Populations. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001.
Underhill et al, Y Chromosome Sequence Variation and the History of Human Populations. (pdf) Nature Genetics, 26: 358-361, 2000.
Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC), A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups. Genome Research, 12:339-348, 2002.

Additional Resources:
Bob Waterous, Haplogroup I Y-DNA Project
Ken Nordtvedt, Founder Haplotypes (Modal Haplotypes for Y-Haplogroup I Varieties)
I1 Project Team (Rebekah Canada, Phil Goff, Aaron Hill, Ken Nordtvedt, Steve Transgrud, Samuel Theil), Y-DNA Haplogroup I Subclade I1
Phil Goff, Deep Ancestry of I1a DYS19=16 Cluster
Rebekah Canada, The I1c (I-P109) yDNA Haplogroup Project
Bill Morrow, Y-Haplogroup I2a Project
Tim Weakley, I1b2* Project Database
Timothy Weakley, I2b2 L38+ Project

Contact People for Haplogroup I: Phil Goff or Whit Athey

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2009:

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