Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2014

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 15 September 2014

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2013 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks

G   M201/PF2957, CTS34/M3442/PF2780, CTS175/M3226/PF2782, CTS189/M3444, CTS282/M3445, CTS373/M3448, CTS440/M3233/PF2842, CTS635/M3449/PF2843, CTS670/M3451, CTS692/M3452, CTS827/M3454/PF2847, CTS995/M3455, CTS1010/PF2848, CTS1013/M3242/PF2849, CTS1029/M3456/PF2850, CTS1139/M3458/PF2852, CTS1283/M3461/PF2855, CTS1437/M3462/PF2856, CTS1574, CTS1577/M3499/PF2922, CTS1612/M3500/PF2923, CTS1613/M3501/PF2924, CTS1624/PF2925, CTS1750/PF2927, CTS1768/M3505/PF2928, CTS1997/M3508/PF2933, CTS2016.1/M3509.1/PF2934.1, CTS2120/M3510/PF2935, CTS2125/M3511, CTS2126/M3512, CTS2136/M3513/PF2938, CTS2174/M3515/PF2939, CTS2215/M3287/PF2940, CTS2251/M3289, CTS2271/M3516, CTS2357/M3517/PF2943, CTS2506/M3519/PF2945, CTS2517/M3520/PF2946, CTS2624/M3522, CTS4101/M3526/PF2963, CTS4238/M3528/PF2966, CTS4479/PF2793, CTS4523/M3311/PF2974, CTS4613/M3532/PF2975, CTS4749/M3534/PF2977, CTS4761/M3535/PF2978, CTS4887/M3536/PF2979, CTS5317/M3537, CTS5414/M3538/PF2981, CTS5498/M3539/PF2982, CTS5504/M3322/PF2983, CTS5640/L1342/M3540, CTS5658/M3541/PF2985, CTS5699/M3542, CTS5757/M3328/PF2989, CTS5837/M3543/PF2990, CTS6073/M3544/PF2992, CTS6483/M3547/PF2996, CTS6807/M3550, CTS6894/PF3003, CTS6936/M3552/PF3004, CTS6957/M3553/PF3005, CTS7092/M3555/PF3006, CTS7269/M3557, CTS7388/M3558/PF3009, CTS7674/M3562/PF3015, CTS7929/M3563/PF3016, CTS8023/M3564/PF3017, CTS8531/M3565, CTS8717/M3566, CTS9011/M3567/PF3024, CTS9190/M3568/PF3025, CTS9593/M3570, CTS9641/M3367/PF3030, CTS9707/M3571/PF3031, CTS9710/M3572/PF3032, CTS9894/PF3036/M3574, CTS10026/PF3037/M3575, CTS10280/PF3039/M3577, CTS10393/PF3041/M3379, CTS10706, CTS10721/M3611, CTS10723/M3612, CTS10824/M3613/PF3097, CTS10945/M3206, CTS11185/M3616/PF3100, CTS11228/M3618, CTS11294/L769/PF3104, CTS11331/M3620, CTS11400/M3621/PF3106, CTS11529/M3622, CTS11670, CTS11702/PF3111, CTS11907/M3424/PF3113, CTS11911/M3623/PF3114, CTS12040/M3624/PF3115, CTS12309/PF3127, CTS12440/M3629/PF3126, CTS12600/M3630/PF3128, CTS12654/M3631/PF3129, CTS12704/M3439/PF3130, CTS12731/M3632/PF3131, CTS12949/M3634/PF3132, CTS13035/PF3133, F2076/L524/PF3136, F3359/M3614/PF3098, F3496/M3625/PF3118, L116/PF2955/S284, L154/PF3139, L204/PF2825, L269/PF3135, L382/M3523/PF2951, L402, F1131/L519, F1383/L520/PF2892, F1551/L521/PF2899, L522/PF3011, F2906/L523/PF3027, L605/PF3023, L770, L836, L837, L1258, L1407/Z3439, M3248/PF2859, M3257/PF2871, M3258/PF2872, M3264/PF2878, M3266/PF2881, M3274/Z3218, M3387/PF3048, M3402/Z6110, M3432/PF3117, M3450/PF2844, M3459/Z3182, M3463/PF2857, M3464/PF2858, M3466/PF2861, M3468/Z3192, M3470/PF2865, M3471/PF2866, M3472/PF2867, M3473/PF2868, M3474/PF2869, M3476/PF2873, M3477/PF2875, M3478/PF2876, M3479/PF2877, M3481/PF2880, M3482/PF2884, M3485/PF2888, M3486/PF2889, M3487/PF2890, M3489/Z3215, M3490/PF2894, M3494/Z3226, M3495/PF2902, M3496/Z3229, M3497/Z3230, M3498/PF2921, M3502/Z3302, M3507/PF2932, M3514/PF3265, M3560/PF3012, M3569/Z3401, M3580/PF3046, M3582/PF3049, M3583/PF3050, M3586/PF3053, M3587/PF3054, M3588/PF3057, M3589/Z6108, M3591/PF3061, M3593/PF3063, M3595/PF3065, M3596/PF3068, M3597/PF3069, M3598/Z3284, M3599/PF3070, M3600/PF3071, M3601/PF3072, M3603/PF3075, M3604/PF3076/S7530, M3605/PF3077, M3606/Z3508, M3608/PF3092, M3609/PF3094, M3619/PF3103, M3627/PF3121, M3628/PF3122, M3633/Z3561, P257/PF2950/U6, Page94/PF3137/U17, PF2788, PF2790, PF2791, PF2796, PF2802, PF2804, PF2805.1/Z2540.2, PF2806, PF2808, PF2809, PF2815, PF2816, PF2817, PF2819, PF2821, PF2831, PF2836, PF2837, PF2901, PF2907, PF2908, PF2910, PF2914, PF2915, PF2917, PF2918, PF2920, PF2952/S314/U2, PF2956/U3, PF2958/U7, PF3022, PF3045, PF3067, PF3080, PF3083, PF3087, PF3088, PF3123, PF3343, PF3134/U33, U12, U20, U21, U23, Z3067, Z3078, Z3080, Z3081, Z3085, Z3087, Z3089/S8863/Y232, Z3094, Z3095, Z3097, Z3102, Z3104, Z3117, Z3120, Z3122, Z3136, Z3144, Z3145, Z3150, Z3152, Z3166, Z3201, Z3239, Z3246, Z3247, Z3248, Z3250, Z3258/S1435, Z3262, Z3285, Z3314, Z3349, Z3400, Z3438, Z3478, Z3482, Z3485, Z3502, Z3507, Z3539, Z6040, Z6106, Z6107, Z6115, Z6121, Z6317, Z6318, Z6324, Z6325, Z6472
G*   -
G1   M342, L833, M285
• • G1*   -
• • G1a   L1324, L1325, L1327, L1414
• • • G1a*   -
• • • G1a1   L201, L202, L203
• • • G1a2   L1323
• • G1b   L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
G2   P287/PF3140, CTS1491, CTS1492, CTS1868/PF2929, CTS1900/M3506/PF2931, CTS2406/M3518/PF2944, CTS2593/M3521/PF2947, CTS4136/M3527/PF2964, CTS4242/M3529/PF2967, CTS4264/M3530/PF2968, CTS4413/M3531/PF2971, CTS4703/M3533/PF2976, CTS5666/M3325/PF2986, CTS6316/M3545, CTS6692/M3548/PF2998, CTS6742/PF2999, CTS7430/M3559/PF3010, CTS7662/M3561/PF3014, CTS9885/M3573/PF3035, CTS10089/M3576/PF3038, CTS11016/M3615/PF3099, CTS11196/M3617/PF3101, F744/M3229/PF2785, F1189/M3267/PF2883, F1239/M3483/PF2886, F1294/M3484/PF2887, F1393/M3270/PF2893, F1496/M3492, F1647/PF2904, F2319/L496/M3546/PF2995, F3070/M3578/PF3042, F3198/M3584, F3220/M3592, F3226/M3594/PF3064, F3344/M3610/PF3095, F3536/M3626/PF3120, L79, L89/M3475/PF3138, L142.2, L156/PF3002, M3273/PF2895, M3276/PF2903, M3446/PF2839, M3447/PF2840, M3465/PF2860, M3469/PF2864, M3480/PF2879, M3488/PF2891, M3491/PF2897, M3493/PF2898, M3581/PF3047, M3585/PF3052, M3607/PF3091, PF2787, PF2789, PF2792, PF2794, PF2797, PF2798, PF2800, PF2803, PF2807, PF2810, PF2814, PF2820, PF2830, PF2835, PF2905, PF2909, PF2912, PF3082, PF3093, PF3119, PF3125, Z3042, Z3056, Z3060, Z3100, Z3112, Z3146, Z3237, Z3274, Z3303, Z3499, Z3504, Z6023, Z6103/M3579, Z6105, Z6114, Z6292, Z6305, Z6474
• • G2*   -
• • G2a   P15/PF3112, CTS32/PF2779, CTS211/M3227/PF2783, CTS1879/PF2930, CTS5416/M3320, CTS6026/M3331/PF2991, CTS6314/M3334, CTS6630/M3340/PF2997, CTS6753/M3342/PF3000, CTS8673/M3358/PF3020, CTS9318/M3362/PF3026, CTS11463/M3421/PF3108, CTS11627/PF3110, F1554/PF2900, F1975/PF2969/M3307, F1980/M3309/PF2972, F2274/M3333/PF2993, F2301/M3335/PF2994, F2529/M3348/PF3013, F3088/PF3043, F3734/PF3116/M3428, F4086/PF2863/M3251, L31/PF3142/S149, L149.1, L1341, M3393/PF3056, M3397/PF3060, M3401/PF3066, M3408/PF3073, M3410/PF3078, PF2799, PF2833, PF2911, PF3034, PF3079, PF3141/U5, Z3072, Z3113, Z3114, Z3154, Z3167, Z3240, Z3249, Z3506, Z6138
• • • G2a*   -
• • • G2a1   L293, FGC528/Z6528, FGC569/Z6710, FGC570/Z6567, FGC571/Z6686, FGC572/Z6593, FGC573/Z6535, FGC574/Z6564, FGC576/Z6537, FGC577/Z6539, FGC578/Z6540, FGC580/Z6526, FGC581/Z6527, FGC582/Z6543, FGC585/Z6529, FGC586/Z6544, FGC587/Z6530, FGC588/Z6531, FGC589/Z6532, FGC590/Z6533, FGC591/Z6534, FGC592/Z6546, FGC593/Z6548, FGC594/Z6707, FGC595/Z6553, FGC596/Z6554, FGC597/Z6556, FGC598/Z6559, FGC599/Z6655, FGC600/Z7993, FGC601/Z6709, FGC602/Z6562, FGC603/Z6565, FGC604/Z6568, FGC605/Z6569, FGC606/Z6570, FGC607/Z6571, FGC608/Z6572, FGC610/Z6681, FGC611/Z6684, FGC612/Z6573, FGC613/Z6574, FGC614/Z6575, FGC616/Z6577, FGC617/Z6578, FGC618/Z6579, FGC620/Z6580, FGC621/Z6583, FGC622/Z6584, FGC623/Z6585, FGC624/Z6586, FGC625/Z6591, FGC626/Z6592, FGC628/Z6597, FGC630/Z6599, FGC631/Z6601, FGC632/Z6602, FGC633/Z6735, FGC634/Z6605, FGC635/Z6738, FGC636/Z6607, FGC637/Z6608, FGC638/Z6609, FGC639/Z6610, FGC640/Z6611, FGC641/Z6612, FGC642/Z6613, FGC644/Z6615, FGC655/Z6622, FGC666/Z6627, FGC673/Z6631, FGC682/Z6647, FGC688/Z6708, FGC739/Z6698, FGC754/Z6715, FGC769/Z6737, FGC1027/Z6557, FGC1028/Z6604, FGC1050/Z8009, FGC1092/Z6538, FGC3753/Z6563, FGC3756/Z6618, FGC7528/Z6713, FGC7530/Z6588, FGC7531/Z6551, FGC7533/Z6547, FGC7534/Z6590, FGC7535/Z6552, FGC7536/Z6555, FGC7537/Z6545, FGC7538/Z6566, FGC7540/Z6525, FGC7542/Z6594, FGC7543/Z6589, FGC7544/Z6587, FGC7545/Z6561, FGC7546/Z6606, FGC7547, FGC7581/Z6541, FGC7582/Z6719, FGC7583/Z6598, FGC7584/Z6581, M7635, PF1123, Z6582, Z6600, Z6603, Z16580
• • • • G2a1*   -
• • • • G2a1a   P16_1, P16_2, FGC645/Z6616, FGC667/Z6628, FGC670/Z6629, FGC699/Z6671, FGC700/Z6672, FGC701/Z16581, FGC703/Z6674, FGC712/Z6676, FGC714/Z6678, FGC715/Z6679, FGC727/Z6690, FGC733/Z6693, FGC741/Z6699, FGC757/Z6717, FGC759/Z6718, FGC762/Z6725, FGC768/Z6736, FGC771/Z6739, FGC1068/Z6595
• • • •  G2a1a*   -
• • • •  G2a1a1   Z6638, F3099, FGC3797/Z8013, Z6632, Z6633, Z6634, Z6635, Z6637, Z6639, Z6640, Z6643, Z6650, Z6654, Z6661, Z6670, Z6677, Z6687, Z6691, Z6692, Z6694, Z6697, Z6706, Z6714, Z6720, Z6728, Z6734, Z8014
• • • •  G2a1a1*   -
• • • •  G2a1a1a   Z7940, FGC692, FGC750/Z7962, Z7956, Z7957, Z7958, Z7959, Z7960, Z7961, Z8008, Z8011
• • • •  • • G2a1a1a*   -
• • • •  • • G2a1a1a1   Z7941, Z7943
• • • •  • • G2a1a1a2   FGC719
• • • •  • • • G2a1a1a2*   -
• • • •  • • • G2a1a1a2a   Z7947, FGC677, FGC681, FGC717, FGC718, FGC723, FGC729, FGC730, FGC745, FGC756, FGC767, FGC770, FGC775, FGC777, Z7948
• • • •  G2a1a1b   FGC1048/Z7953, FGC1049/Z7954
• • • •  G2a1a2   Z6673, Z6680
• • • G2a2   CTS4367/L1259/M3308/PF2970, PF2824, PF2826
• • • • G2a2*   -
• • • • G2a2a   PF3146, PF3147, PF3151, PF3159, PF3161, PF3165, PF3166, PF3167, PF3168, PF3172, PF3175, PF3176, PF3180, PF3181, PF3182, PF3184, PF3185, PF3186
• • • •  G2a2a*   -
• • • •  G2a2a1   PF3177
• • • •  G2a2a1*   -
• • • •  G2a2a1a   M286
• • • •  G2a2a1b   L91/PF3246/S285
• • • •  • • G2a2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • G2a2a1b1   PF3239, CTS3850/Z2051, FGC5668, FGC5676, FGC5681, PF3231, PF3240, PF3247, Z6043, Z6123, Z6126, Z6129, Z6130, Z6132, Z6200, Z6277, Z6283, Z6303, Z6312, Z6476, Z6477, Z6486, Z6490, Z6492
• • • •  • • • G2a2a1b1*   -
• • • •  • • • G2a2a1b1a   L166, FGC5671, FGC5673, FGC5687, FGC5696, FGC5721, L167, PF3178, PF6846, Z1370.2, Z6134, Z6206, Z6207, Z6209, Z6213, Z6215, Z6219, Z6220, Z6287, Z6493, Z6499, Z6516, Z12228, Z12229, Z12230
• • • •  • • • • G2a2a1b1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • G2a2a1b1a1   FGC5672
• • • • G2a2b   L30/PF3267/S126, L32/PF3266/S148/U8, L190/M485
• • • •  G2a2b*   -
• • • •  G2a2b1   M406/PF3285M3249/PF3287, M3268.1/PF3292.1, M3281/PF3297, M3312/PF3300, M3314/PF3301, M3323/PF3304, M3366/PF3312, M3382/PF3315, M3423/PF3319
• • • •  G2a2b1*   -
• • • •  G2a2b1a   L14/Page57/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
• • • •  G2a2b1b   L645
• • • •  G2a2b1c   PF3296, PF3293, PF3316
• • • •  G2a2b2   L141.1
• • • •  G2a2b2*   -
• • • •  G2a2b2a   P303/Page108/PF3340/S135/Z765, CTS688, CTS946, CTS1949/PF3334/Z1820, CTS4454/PF3335, CTS6719/PF3336/Z763, CTS10366/PF3338, CTS10725/PF3344, Page98/Z766, PF3329, PF3330, PF3332, PF3333, PF3339, PF3342, Z3077, Z3084, Z3142, Z3243, Z3481, Z6109, Z6136, Z6323
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a*   -
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a1   L140/S316, CTS796, CTS12570, CTS12891/PF3347, PF2823, PF3331, PF3337/Z764, PF3345, PF3346, Z3065, Z3155, Z3220, Z3245, Z3501, Z3517, Z6294
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1a   U1
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1a1   L13/S131/U13, L78/M527, Z1993
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a1a   CTS9909/Z2022, CTS417/Z1991, Z2009, Z2014
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a2a1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a1a1   Z2003
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1a1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1a1a1a   L1263
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1a2   L1266
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a2*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a2a   L1264, L1265, L1268
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b   L497/S317, CTS1899/PF6851/Z738, CTS7111/Z748, PF6850/Z728, PF6852/Z754
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b*   -
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1   CTS9737/Z1815
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a   Z725, CTS11352/Z759
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1   L43/S147
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a1a   L42/S146
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a2   CTS6796/Z726
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a2*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a2a   CTS4803
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b1a2a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b1a2a1   S2808
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a2a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a2a1a   CTS10391, S23438
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1c   CTS342
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c*   -
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c1   Z724, CTS6325, CTS8476/PF6867, Y367/Z3511, Y368/Z3512
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a   CTS5990/Z1903, CTS77, CTS2073, CTS4472, CTS6763, CTS7045, CTS7155, CTS7658, CTS11388, PF6851, PF6863, PF6865, PF6866, Z2047, Z2048, Z3033, Z3038, Z3040, Z3055, Z3057, Z3064, Z3066, Z3073, Z3082, Z3133, Z3137, Z3139, Z3162, Z3171, Z3177, Z3193, Z3219, Z3234, Z3236, Z3263, Z3265, Z3312, Z3332, Z3380, Z3381, Z3388, Z3396, Z3410, Z3423, Z3435, Z3440, Z3445, Z6140, Z6141, Z6162, Z6296, Z6297, Z6319, Z6320, Z6321, Z6322, Z6521, Z6522, Z6524
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a1   L640, CTS1934, CTS2462, CTS3426, CTS9329, CTS12069, FGC287/Y370, FGC333, FGC334/Y90, FGC335, FGC337, FGC338/Y74, FGC340, FGC341, FGC346, FGC7497, Z3029, Z3294, Z3307, Z3315, Z3373, Z3434, Z3520, Z3574, Z3576, Z3577, Z3579, Z3580, Z5853, Z5854, Z5855, Z6021, Z6044, Z6045, Z6096, Z6097, Z6098, Z6100, Z6102, Z6112, Z6142, Z6550, Z16492, Z16498, Z17857, Z17858, Z17859
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1c1a1*   -
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1c1a1a   FGC348, FGC349
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a2   Z3428, Z3292
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c2   FGC12126, FGC12129, FGC12130, FGC12135, FGC12138, FGC12145, FGC12152, FGC12156, FGC12159, Z16667
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c2*   -
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c2a   L660, L662
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a2   L694
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a3   M278
• • • •  G2a2b2b   PF3359, CTS5434/PF3392, F705/PF3348, F795/PF3354, F1006/PF3260, F1175, F1429/PF3365, F1581/PF3367, F1629/PF3368, F1760/PF3377, F2037, F2419/PF3400, F3041/PF3414, PF3321, PF3404, PF3418, F3425/PF3431, PF3432, FGC7257, FGC7260, PF3326, PF3375, PF3388, PF3395, PF3396, PF3413, PF3417, Z6171, Z12223
• • • •  • • G2a2b2b*   -
• • • •  • • G2a2b2b1   F1193/PF3362, F1705/PF3322, PF3430
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2b1*   -
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2b1a   F872/PF3355, F935/PF3356, F1079, F1338, F1671, F1932/PF3383, F2020, F2291/Z6442, F2537/PF3402, F3282, PF3369, PF3394, PF3401, PF3419
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2b1a*   -
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2b1a1   PF3378, PF2829, PF3252, PF3349, PF3358, PF3379, PF3385,PF3386, PF3390, PF3391, PF3393, PF3398, PF3405, PF3412,PF3423, PF3433
• • G2b   M3115, M3145, M3191, PF1343, PF5721.2 Z8015, Z8016, Z8017, Z8018, Z8019, Z8020, Z8021
• • • G2b*   -
• • • G2b1   M377, L72/S315, L183
• • • • G2b1*   -
• • • • G2b1a   M283

An Extended Version of G Tree with STR Marker Categories created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Experimental G Tree by Ray Banks.

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup G.  Scholars have proposed dates ranging from 10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of this group using STR marker differences as the basis of their calculations. (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project site, Semino). Counting the differences in numbers of SNP mutations, one study (Wei) suggested that haplogroups more recent than haplogroup F (including G) had "a rapid expansion" dated at 41,000-52,000 years ago. Another study showed that haplogroup G was the first branching from haplogroup F among haplogroups G to T (Poznik). And this latter study — again counting SNP mutations — calculated about the same time frame for the emergence of haplogroup G based on its proportional branch length within its figure 2 which calculated the common male ancestor of all living men as living 120,000 to 156,000 years ago. A final study (Francalacci) which calibrated its calculations according to the first settlement of Sardinia gave an estimated age for haplogroup G as a separate branch as 76,670 years (mean number of mutations of 374 multiplied by 205 years per mutation, according to their data).

Researchers have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site of origin of G, but the lack of ancient DNA from that period makes confirmation of this difficult. Aunitary concept of haplogroup G often has little practical importance because virtually all G men belong to G subgroups that arose much more recently and have differing geographical distributions.

These are the most common G subgroups:

G1-M285 is a much less common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far have the 12 value at marker DYS392 — rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G project data). G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching there up to 5 percent of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa and Asia (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, and DYS392=12 G1 estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies). A Kazakh, a Middle Eastern and two Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist (Biro, G project data). Using STR marker differences, Rootsi calculated the expansion time of M285 as 19,271 years ± 6,158 years.

G2a1-L293.  All G2a1 (L293) men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 — rarely seen in G except in L293 men. The subgroup P16 is found in high percentages in the central Caucasus Mountains area and is rare elsewhere. Small clusters are found among Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and among Maronite Christians in Lebanon (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project, Haber, Balanovsky and data). The Rootsi study — using STR marker differences — calculated the coalescence age estimate for P16 at 9,400 years ago.

G2a2a-PF3146 men are found scattered throughout southwest and southern Asia and, though rare in Europe, reach observable levels in Corsica and Sardinia (Keller, Francalacci, G Project data). A double value for DYS19 in G is found almost exclusively within G2a2a though men with the same double value will not be reported as such. G2a2a includes Oetzi, the Iceman mummy preserved for over 5000 years in the Italian Alps (Keller).

G2a2b1-M406 occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean area reaching up to 5 percent of all men. A high percentage of M406 men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise. M406 is more common in southern Europe than in northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi Jewish subgroup of M406 exists (King, Rootsi, G project and Cinnioglu data). One study using STR marker differences calculated the expansion time for M406 in Anatolia at 12,800 years ago (Rootsi).

G2a2b2a1-L140 is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80 percent of G samples) and may reach up to about 7 percent of all men in a country but averages about 3 percent. A high percentage of G2a2b2a1 samples form three major subgroups, Z725+ (DYS388=13 and predominantly CTS4803+), Z2022+ (YCA=20,21) and Z1903+ (DYS568=9). One U1 subgroup within L140 (L1266) is the only L140 subgroup confirmed in some frequency outside Europe and that only in the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest (G Project, Balanovsky, Rootsi data). North of the European borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three L140 subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi Jewish cluster from northeastern Europe comprises about half of the Z1903 subgroup, and this Jewish subgroup represents an exception to usual European boundaries mentioned. An unusual concentration of Z1903 men occurs in Sardinia, and a high concentration of L497 was also found in isolated valleys of southwestern Austria. The connection of the three main L140 subgroups to Sea Peoples, Etruscans, Alans and Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is widely debated. Using differences in STR marker value differences, Rootsi calculated the expansion time of the Z2022 subgroup as 7,100 years ± 2,300 years and 10,870 years ± 3,029 years for L497 in central Europe (All info from Berger, miscellaneous L140 data from Adams, Rootsi, Francalacci and over 2,000 L140 samples in G project).

G2a2b2b1-CTS5434/PF3392 is found in noticeable numbers so far only in Sardinia (Francalacci data).

G2b1-M377. Available M377 samples are either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men from northeast Europe who have a null value for marker DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from the Mediterranean areas and Armenia, and more noticeably from Afghanistan, Pakistan and among Indian Pathans (Sengupta and G Project data). Using STR marker differences Rootsi calculated a coalescence estimate of 5,600 years ago for M377 men, though the age of the M377 is certainly much older.

References:

Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al, Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Berger et al, High Resolution Mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria). Forensic Science International: Genetics, 7(5), 529-36, 2013.
Bertoncini et al, The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Ghiani et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Haber et al, Influences of History, Geography, and Religion on Genetic Structure: the Maronites in Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Keller et al, New Insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-genome Sequencing. Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1701, 2023.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic., Annals of Human Genetics, 72:205-214, 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72: 313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 68: 588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69: 401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Olalde et al, Genomic Analysis of the Blood Attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), King of France., Scientific Reports, 4, Article number: 4666, doi:10.1038/srep04666, 2014.
Poznik et al, Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females. (abstract) Science, 341 (6145): 562-5. 2013.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al, Distinguishing the Co-Ancestries of Haplogroup G Y-Chromosomes in the Populations of Europe and the Caucasus. Abstract. European Journal of Human Genetics, (e-pub 16 May 2012 ahead of print), pp 1-8.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70: 265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78: 202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24: 248-260, 2004.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2006). Differentiation of sub-populations within Y-SNP haplogroup G, (poster citation - not available online) Forensic Science Society, Autumn Conference, Wyboston, UK, November 3-5, 2006.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009). Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf) PLoS One, 4: 6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49: 4, July 2004.
Wei et al, A Calibrated Human Y-Chromosomal Phylogeny Based on Resequencing. Genome Research, 23(2): 388-95, 2013.
Zalloua et al, Identifying Genetic Traces of Historic Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83: 633-42, 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1): 46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks, Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2b-M377 / L72 / L183 / M283 Y Haplogroup Project (formerly G2c), Ted Kandell.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:

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