Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2013
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Version History Last
revision date for this specific page: 9 December 2013
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG
does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments
in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email
Alice Fairhurst if the differences need
clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
L154/PF3139, L204/PF2825, L240,
L269/PF3135, L402, L519,
L836, L837, L1258, L1407/Z3439, M201/PF2957,
P257/PF2950/U6, Page94/PF3137/U17, PF2952/S314/U2,
PF2958/U7, U12, U20, U21, U23, PF3134/U33
G1 L833, M285, M342
G1a L1324, L1325, L1327, L1414
G1a1 L201, L202, L203
G1b L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
G2 L79, L142.2, L156/PF3002,
G2a L31/PF3142/S149, L149.1,
G2a1a P16_1, P16_2
G2a1a1 F3099, Z6632, Z6633, Z6634,
Z6635, Z6637, Z6638, Z6639, Z6640, Z6643, Z6650, Z6654, Z6661, Z6670, Z6677, Z6687, Z6691, Z6692, Z6694, Z6697,
Z6706, Z6714, Z6720, Z6728, Z6734, Z8013, Z8014
G2a1a1a Z7940, Z7956, Z7957, Z7958,
Z7959, Z7960, Z7961, Z8008, Z8011
G2a2a1b1 L166, L167
G2a2b1a L14/Page57/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
G2a2b2a1a1 L13/S131/U13, L78/M527, Z1993
G2a2b2a1a1a CTS417/Z1991, Z2003,
Z2009, Z2014, CTS9909/Z2022
G2a2b2a1a2a L1264, L1265, L1268
G2a2b2a1c1a1 CTS1934, CTS2462, CTS3426,
CTS9329, CTS12069, L640, Z3029, Z3294, Z3307, Z3315, Z3373, Z3434, Z3520, Z3574, Z3576,
Z3577, Z3579, Z3580, Z5853, Z5854, Z5855, Z6021, Z6044, Z6045, Z6096, Z6097, Z6098, Z6100, Z6102, Z6112, Z6142, Z6550
G2a2b2a1c1a2 Z3292, Z3428
G2a2b2a1c2 L660, L662
G2a2b2b F1193/PF3362, L177_1, L177_2, L177_3
G2b1 L72/S315, L183, M377
An Extended Version of G Tree with STR Marker Categories
created by Content Expert Ray Banks.
Experimental G Tree by Ray Banks.
Private SNPs are being removed from the tree and placed in the following category:
Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution
criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple
confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.
- L139 is located under L497. Listed 22 Jul 2009.
and L185 are located under M406. Listed 11 Dec 2009.
- L297 was found under L43. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L661 is located under L660 and L662. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
- L695 is located under L694. Listed 13 Oct 2011.
- L486 is found at approximately L497. Listed 26 April 2012.
- P76 is downstream of M285. Listed 5 August 2012.
- M287 is downstream of P287. Listed 5 August 2012.
- M426 is downstream from P303. Listed 24 August 2012.
- L1326 is found at approximately M285. Listed 1 December 2012.
- CTS11795.1 is found at approximately M201. Listed 17 March 2013.
SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples
and/or correct placement on the tree.
- L373, L374, L375, L376, L377, L378,
and L379 are located at approximately L14. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L496/PF2995 is located at approximately P287. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L518 is located at approximately L140 but thought downstream of L497. Listed 31 May 2011.
- L524/PF3136 is located at approximately M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- Page99 is reported within M201. Listed 31 May 2011.
- Z1901 is located at approximately L497. Listed
14 February 2012.
- Page52.1 is located at approximately G-M201. Listed on 2 March 2012.
- Page25 is located under L14. Listed 18 June 2012.
- L1257, and L1260 are equivalent to U1.
Listed 7 July 2012.
- L1256, L1261, L1262, L1269, L1270, and L1271 are
downstream from L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- L654.2 is
at approximately U1 and upstream from L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- Z1992, Z2005, Z2006, Z2013, and
Z2024 are at approximately L13. Listed 7 July 2012.
- M461 is downstream from M406. Listed 24 August 2012.
- M547 is found at approximately L30. Listed 28 August 2012.
- L1328 is found at approximately M285. Listed 1 December 2012.
- F1006/PF3260, F1175, F1193, F1705/PF3322, F2037, F2410/PF3399, F2419/PF3400,
F3041/PF3414, PF3321, PF3359, PF3403, PF3404, PF3418, PF3430, and PF3432 are
located approximately at L177. Listed 19 February 2013.
- CTS6010, F3072 are located at approximately L640. Listed 19 February 2013.
- PF3147, PF3148, PF3151, PF3155, PF3159, PF3160, PF3161, PF3163, PF3166, PF3167,
PF3168, PF3170, PF3171, PF3172, PF3175, PF3176, PF3180, PF3181, PF3182, PF3184, PF3185, PF3186, PF3237,
PF3238, and PF6827 are located at approximately PF3146. Listed 24 February 2013.
- PF3287, PF3292.1, PF3297, PF3299, PF3300, PF3301, PF3303, PF3304, PF3315, and
PF3319 are located at approximately M406. Listed 1 March 2013.
- F3378, PF3293, PF3296, and PF3316 are located
downstream of M406. Listed 1 March 2013.
- PF3233 is located at approximately L91. Listed 8 March 2013.
- Z3575 is located at approximately L640. Listed 8 March 2013.
- Z3292 and Z3292 are located approximately downstream
of Z724 and upstream of L640. Listed 8 March 2013.
- CTS77, CTS6325,
PF2474, PF5891, PF6863, Z3033, Z3036, Z3037, Z3038,
Z3055, Z3071, Z3073, Z3076, Z3079, Z3137, Z3139, Z3151, Z3162, Z3171,
Z3179, Z3193, Z3236, Z3263, Z3277, Z3297, Z3380, Z3388, Z3408,
Z3410, Z3423, Z3435, Z3445, Z3461, Z3467, Z3468, Z3471, Z3474, Z3483, Z3484, Z3489, Z3490, Z3492,
Z3494, Z3495, Z3496, Z3530 and Z3551 are located at
approximately Z724. Listed 17 March 2013.
- CTS8476/PF6867, Z723, Z3049, Z3050, Z3098, Z3511 and
Z3512 are likely equivalent to Z724 or CTS342. Listed 17 March 2013.
- CTS2073, CTS7045, CTS7155, CTS7658, CTS11388, CTS11922, PF6865, PF6866, Z2047,
Z2048, Z3040, Z3082, Z3133, Z3177, Z3219, Z3234, Z3265, Z3312, Z3332, Z3396 and
Z3440 are at approximately Z1903 or upstream within CTS342. Listed 17 March 2013.
- CTS1899/Z738, CTS7111/Z748, CTS8596/Z751, PF6850/Z728, and
PF6852/Z754 are likely equivalent to L497. Listed 25 March 2013.
- CTS11352/Z759 is likely equivalent to Z725. Listed 25 March 2013.
- Z733, Z3130, Z3158, Z3212, Z3223, Z3283 and
Z3390 are located approximately at Z726. Listed 25 March 2013.
- F872, F935, F1079, F1338, F1671, F1932, F2020, F3282, PF2829, PF3252, PF3349, PF3358, PF3379, PF3385,
PF3386, PF3390, PF3391, PF3393, PF3394, PF3398, PF3401, PF3405, PF3408, PF3412, PF3416, PF3419, PF3423, PF3433 and
PF3434.2 are downstream of L177. Listed 7 April 2013.
Z6641, Z6642, Z6673, Z6680, Z6705 are located downstream from P16 and parallel to Z6638. Listed 29 November 2013.
Z7941, Z7942, Z7943, Z7944, Z7945 are located downstream from Z7940 and parallel to Z7946. Listed 29 November 2013.
Z7946, Z7947, Z7948, Z7949, Z7950 are located downstream from Z7940 and parallel to Z7941. Listed 29 November 2013.
Z7951, Z7952, Z7953, Z7954, Z7955 are located downstream from Z6638 and parallel to Z7940. Listed 29 November 2013.
- Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in
the order of discovery, and separated by "/". Examples: P257/U6, L31/S149.
- L223 has been found to be unreliable and has been removed from the tree; PF3146 has taken its place. Listed 25 June 2013.
- P20_1, P20_2, P20_3 has been found to be an unreliable palindromic snp. Men in the same family do not have identical
results; withdrawn from the tree on 10 August 2013.
- P18_1, P18_2, P18_3 has been found to be an unreliable palimdromic snp. Men in the same family do not have identical
results; withdrawn from the tree on 9 December 2013.
Y-DNA haplogroup G. Scholars have proposed dates ranging from 10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of
this group using STR marker differences as the basis of their calculations. (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project site, Semino). Counting the
differences in numbers of SNP mutations, one study (Wei) suggested that haplogroups more recent than haplogroup F (including G) had
a rapid expansion dated at 41,000-52,000 years ago. Another study showed that haplogroup G was the first branching from haplogroup F
among haplogroups G to T. (Poznik). And this latter study -- again counting SNP mutations calculated about the same time frame for the
emergence of haplogroup G based on its proportional branch length within its figure 2 which calculated the common male ancestor of all
living men as living 120,000 to 156,000 years ago. A final study (Francalacci) which calibrated its calculations according to the first
settlement of Sardinia gave an estimated age for haplogroup G as a separate branch as 76,670 yrs (mean number of mutations of 374 multiplied
by 205 years per mutation, according to their data).
Researchers have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site of origin of G, but the lack of ancient DNA from that period
makes confirmation of this difficult. Aunitary concept of haplogroup G often has little practical importance because virtually all G men
belong to G subgroups that arose much more recently and have differing geographical distributions.
These are the most common G subgroups:
G1-M285 is a much less common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far have the
12 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G project data). G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching
there up to 5% of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa and Asia (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, & DYS392=12 G1
estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies).
A Kazakh, a Middle Eastern and two Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist (Biro, G project data). Using STR marker differences, Rootsi
calculated the expansion time of M285 as 19,271 yrs ± 6,158 yrs.
G2a1-L293. All G2a1 (L293) men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 -- rarely seen in G except in L293 men.
The subgroup P16/P18 is found in high percentages in the central Caucasus Mountains area and is rare elsewhere. Small clusters are found among
Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and among Maronite Christians in Lebanon (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project, Haber, Balanovsky &
data). The Rootsi study using STR marker differences calculated the coalescence age estimate for P16 at 9,400 yrs ago.
G2a2-PF3146 men are found scattered throughout southwest & southern Asia and, though rare in Europe, reach observable
levels in Corsica and Sardinia (Keller, Francalacci, G Project data). A double value for DYS19 in G is found almost exclusively within G2a2 though
men with the same double value will not be reported as such. G2a2 includes Oetzi, the Iceman mummy preserved for over 5000 yrs. in the Italian A
G2a3a-M406 occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean area reaching up to 5% of all men. A high
percentage of M406 men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise. M406 is more common in southern Europe than in
northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi Jewish subgroup of M406 exists (King, Rootsi, G project & Cinnioglu data). One study using STR marker
differences calculated the expansion time for M406 in Anatolia at 12,800 years ago (Rootsi).
G2a3b1a-L140 is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80% of G samples) and may reach up to about 7% of all men in a
country but averages about 3%. A high percentage of G2a3b1 samples form three major subgroups, Z725+ (DYS388=13 and predominantly CTS4803+),
Z2022+ (YCA=20,21) and Z1903+ (DYS568=9). One U1 subgroup within L140 (L1266) is the only L140 subgroup confirmed in some frequency outside
Europe and that only in the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest (G Project, Balanovsky, Rootsi data). North of the European
borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three L140 subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups
are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi
Jewish cluster from northeastern Europe comprises about half of the Z1903 subgroup, and this Jewish subgroup represents an exception to
usual European boundaries mentioned. An unusual concentration of Z1903 men occurs in Sardinia, and a high concentration of L497 was also
found in isolated valleys of southwestern Austria. The connection of the three main L140 subgroups to Sea Peoples, Etruscans, Alans and
Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is widely debated. Using differences in STR marker value differences, Rootsi calculated
the expansion time of the Z2022 subgroup as 7,100 yrs ± 2,300 yrs and 10,870 yrs ± 3,029 yrs for L497 in central Europe (All info from Berger,
miscellaneous L140 data from Adams, Rootsi, Francalacci and over 2,000 L140 samples in G project).
G2a3b2-L177 is found in noticeable numbers so far only in Sardinia (Francalacci data from men with L177 SNP equivalents
because L177 could not be tested).
G2b-M377. Available M377 samples are either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men from northeast Europe who have a null
value for marker DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from the Mediterranean areas & Armenia, and more noticeably from Afghanistan, Pakistan
and among Indian Pathans (Sengupta & G Project data). Using STR marker differences Rootsi calculated a coalescence estimate of 5,600 yrs ago
for M377 men, though the age of the M377 is certainly much older.
Adams et al,
Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of
Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of
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Alonso et al,
The Place of the Basques in the European
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Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf)
Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al,
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
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Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host
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Behar et al,
Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People.
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Berger et al,
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Bertoncini et al,
The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants.
(abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al,
Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars
American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al,
Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers
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Cruciani et al,
A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported
by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes.
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al,
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Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny.
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Ghiani et al,
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Haber et al,
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Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al,
Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists.
European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al,
New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup
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Keller et al,
New Insights into the Tyrolean Icemans Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-genome Sequencing.
Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1701, 2023.
King et al,
Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic
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Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. (abstract)
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The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste
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Nasidze et al,
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ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks,
Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2c Project, Ted Kandell.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2013:
- Added CTS11294, PF2825, PF2892, PF2899, PF2950, PF2952, PF2955, PF2956, PF2957, PF2958,
PF3002, PF3011, PF3023, PF3027, PF3104, PF3112, PF3134, PF3135, PF3137, PF3139, PF3140, PF3141, PF3142,
PF3246, PF3266, PF3267, PF3285, PF3340, Z765 to tree;
added PF2995, PF3136 to Investigation on 5 January 2013.
- Added CTS6796, Z726, Z2009; moved Z1991, Z2003, Z2014, Z2022 from Investigation to tree on 9 January 2013.
- Added CTS417, CTS9909 on 10 February 2013.
- Moved L1324 from Investigation to tree on 13 February 2013.
- Added note regarding L223's reliability on 14 February 2013.
- Added F1006/PF3260, F1175, F1193/PF3362, F1705/PF3322, F2037, F2410/PF3399, F2419/PF3400,
F3041/PF3414, PF3321, PF3359, PF3403, PF3404, PF3418, PF3430, PF3432 to Investigation on 19 February 2013.
- Added CTS1934, CTS6010, CTS9329, F3072, Z3029, Z3294, Z3307, Z3434, Z3520 to Investigation
on 19 February 2013.
- Added PF3146, PF3147, PF3148, PF3151, PF3155, PF3159, PF3160, PF3161, PF3163, PF3166, PF3167,
PF3168, PF3170, PF3171, PF3172, PF3175, PF3176, PF3177, PF3180, PF3181, PF3182, PF3184, PF3185, PF3186, PF3237,
PF3238, PF6827 to Investigation on 24 February 2013.
- Moved L1324, L1325, L1327 from Investigation to tree; moved L1326 to private on 1 March 2013.
- Added F3378, PF3287, PF3292.1, PF3293, PF3296, PF3297, PF3299, PF3300, PF3301, PF3303, PF3304, PF3315, PF3316,
PF3319 to Investigation on 1 March 2013.
- Added PF3233, Z3292, Z3315, Z3428, Z3574, Z3575, Z3576, Z3577 to Investigation on 8 March 2013.
- Modified haplogroup description paragraph dealing with European G males on 15 March 2013.
- Added CTS77, CTS342, CTS2073, CTS5990, CTS6325, CTS7045, CTS7155, CTS7658, CTS8476/PF6867, CTS11388,
PF2474, PF5891, PF6863, PF6865, PF6866, Z723, Z2048, Z3033, Z3036, Z3037, Z3038, Z3040, Z3049,
Z3050, Z3055, Z3071, Z3073, Z3076, Z3079, Z3082, Z3098, Z3133, Z3137, Z3139, Z3151, Z3162, Z3171, Z3177,
Z3179, Z3193, Z3219, Z3234, Z3236, Z3263, Z3265, Z3277, Z3297, Z3312, Z3332, Z3380, Z3388, Z3396, Z3408,
Z3410, Z3423, Z3435, Z3440, Z3445, Z3461, Z3467, Z3468, Z3471, Z3474, Z3483, Z3484, Z3489, Z3490, Z3492,
Z3494, Z3495, Z3496, Z3511, Z3512, Z3530, Z3551 to Investigation on 17 March 2013.
- Added CTS11795.1 to Private on 17 March 2013.
- Added CTS1899/Z738, CTS4803, CTS7111/Z748, CTS8596/Z751, CTS9737/Z1815, CTS11352/Z759, PF6850/Z728, PF6852/Z754,
Z733, Z3130, Z3158, Z3212, Z3223, Z3283, Z3390 to Investigation on 25 March 2013.
- Added F872, F935, F1079, F1338, F1671, F1932, F2020, F3282, PF2829, PF3252, PF3349, PF3358, PF3378, PF3379, PF3385,
PF3386, PF3390, PF3391, PF3393, PF3394, PF3398, PF3401, PF3405, PF3408, PF3412, PF3416, PF3419, PF3423, PF3433, PF3434.2
to Investigation on 7 April 2013.
- Added M278 to tree on 7 April 2013.
- Added Experimental G Tree by Ray Banks on 7 May 2013.
- Added L1407/Z3439 to tree on 12 May 2013.
- Removed L223 from tree and changed note regarding its reliability on 25 June 2013.
- Moved PF3146, PF3177 from Investigation to tree on 25 June 2013.
- Moved CTS9737/Z1815 from Investigation to tree on 15 July 2013.
- Moved CTS4803, Z1993 from Investigattion to tree; P20_1, P20_2, P20_3 withdrawn from tree on 10 August 2013.
- Moved PF3378 from Investigation to tree; added Francalacci et al (2013) on 19 August 2013.
- Added Berger et al (2013), Poznik et al (2013), Wei et al (2013); moved Z3428 from Investigation to tree on 1 September 2013.
- Added L1414; moved CTS342 from Investigation to tree on 3 October 2014.
- Added Z6632, Z6633, Z6634, Z6635, Z6638, Z6641, Z6642, Z6673, Z6680, Z6705, Z7940, Z7941, Z7942, Z7943, Z7944, Z7945, Z7946, Z7947, Z7948, Z7949,
Z7950, Z7951, Z7952, Z7953, Z7954, Z7955, Z7956, Z7957, Z7958, Z7959 to Investigation on 29 November 2013.
- Moved F1193/PF3362 from Investigation to tree on 29 November 2013.
- Added CTS4367/M3308, PF4721.2 to tree and moved L1259 from Investigation to tree on 29 November 2013.
- Moved Z6632, Z6633, Z6634, Z6635, Z6638, Z7940, Z7956, Z7957, Z7958, Z7959 from Investigation to tree;
added F3099, Z6637, Z6639, Z6640, Z6643, Z6650, Z6654, Z6661, Z6670, Z6677, Z6687, Z6691, Z6692, Z6694, Z6697,
Z6706, Z6714, Z6720, Z6728, Z6734, Z7960, Z7961, Z8008, Z8011, Z8013, Z8014 to tree on 9 December 2013.
- Moved CTS1934, CTS9329, CTS12069, Z3029, Z3292, Z3294, Z3307, Z3315, Z3373, Z3434, Z3520, Z3574, Z3576, Z3577 from Investigation to tree;
added CTS2462, CTS3426, Z3579, Z3580, Z5853, Z5854, Z5855, Z6021, Z6044, Z6045, Z6096, Z6097, Z6098, Z6100, Z6102, Z6112, Z6142,
Z6550 to tree on 9 December 2013.
Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks