Y-DNA Haplogroup G and its Subclades - 2015

The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the Main Page.   Directions for citing the document are given at the bottom of the Main Page.
Version History     Last revision date for this specific page: 21 August 2015

Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.

LINKS:  Main Page   Y-DNA Tree Trunk   SNP Index   Papers/Presentations Cited   Glossary   Listing Criteria
CLADE/SUBCLADE SYMBOLS:  Added  Redefined 
SNP SYMBOLS:  Not on 2014 tree  Confirmed within subclade  Provisional  Private  Investigation 

The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.

SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.

Paragroups, subclades ending with an asterisk (*) indicate that some individuals do not test positive for any snps downstream. Since this fact is commonly known, paragroups are being omitted to simplify the display of SNPs.

Contact Person for Haplogroup G: Ray H. Banks

Link to Experimental Composite Y-DNA Haplogroup G Tree by Ray Banks.

G   M201/PF2957, CTS34/M3442/PF2780, CTS175/M3226/PF2782, CTS189/M3444, CTS282/M3445, CTS373/M3448, CTS440/M3233/PF2842, CTS635/M3449/PF2843, CTS670/M3451, CTS692/M3452, CTS827/M3454/PF2847, CTS995/M3455, CTS1010/PF2848, CTS1013/M3242/PF2849, CTS1029/M3456/PF2850, CTS1139/M3458/PF2852, CTS1283/M3461/PF2855, CTS1437/M3462/PF2856, CTS1574, CTS1577/M3499/PF2922, CTS1612/M3500/PF2923, CTS1613/M3501/PF2924, CTS1624/PF2925, CTS1750/PF2927, CTS1768/M3505/PF2928, CTS1997/M3508/PF2933, CTS2016.1/M3509.1/PF2934.1, CTS2120/M3510/PF2935, CTS2125/M3511, CTS2126/M3512, CTS2136/M3513/PF2938, CTS2174/M3515/PF2939, CTS2215/M3287/PF2940, CTS2251/M3289, CTS2271/M3516, CTS2357/M3517/PF2943, CTS2506/M3519/PF2945, CTS2517/M3520/PF2946, CTS2624/M3522, CTS4101/M3526/PF2963, CTS4238/M3528/PF2966, CTS4479/PF2793, CTS4523/M3311/PF2974, CTS4613/M3532/PF2975, CTS4749/M3534/PF2977, CTS4761/M3535/PF2978, CTS4887/M3536/PF2979, CTS5317/M3537, CTS5414/M3538/PF2981, CTS5498/M3539/PF2982, CTS5504/M3322/PF2983, CTS5640/L1342/M3540, CTS5658/M3541/PF2985, CTS5699/M3542, CTS5757/M3328/PF2989, CTS5837/M3543/PF2990, CTS6073/M3544/PF2992, CTS6483/M3547/PF2996, CTS6807/M3550, CTS6894/PF3003, CTS6936/M3552/PF3004, CTS6957/M3553/PF3005, CTS7092/M3555/PF3006, CTS7269/M3557, CTS7388/M3558/PF3009, CTS7674/M3562/PF3015, CTS7929/M3563/PF3016, CTS8023/M3564/PF3017, CTS8531/M3565, CTS8717/M3566, CTS9011/M3567/PF3024, CTS9190/M3568/PF3025, CTS9593/M3570, CTS9641/M3367/PF3030, CTS9707/M3571/PF3031, CTS9710/M3572/PF3032, CTS9894/PF3036/M3574, CTS10026/PF3037/M3575, CTS10280/PF3039/M3577, CTS10393/PF3041/M3379, CTS10706, CTS10721/M3611, CTS10723/M3612, CTS10824/M3613/PF3097, CTS10945/M3206, CTS11185/M3616/PF3100, CTS11228/M3618, CTS11294/L769/PF3104, CTS11331/M3620, CTS11400/M3621/PF3106, CTS11529/M3622, CTS11670, CTS11702/PF3111, CTS11907/M3424/PF3113, CTS11911/M3623/PF3114, CTS12040/M3624/PF3115, CTS12309/PF3127, CTS12440/M3629/PF3126, CTS12600/M3630/PF3128, CTS12654/M3631/PF3129, CTS12704/M3439/PF3130, CTS12731/M3632/PF3131, CTS12949/M3634/PF3132, CTS13035/PF3133, F2076/L524/PF3136, F3359/M3614/PF3098, F3496/M3625/PF3118, L116/PF2955/S284, L154/PF3139, L204/PF2825, L269/PF3135, L382/M3523/PF2951, L402, F1131/L519, F1383/L520/PF2892, F1551/L521/PF2899, L522/PF3011, F2906/L523/PF3027, L605/PF3023, L770, L836, L837, L1258, L1407/Z3439, >M3248/PF2859, M3257/PF2871, M3258/PF2872, M3264/PF2878, M3266/PF2881, M3274/Z3218, M3387/PF3048, M3402/Z6110, M3432/PF3117, M3450/PF2844, M3459/Z3182, M3463/PF2857, M3464/PF2858, M3466/PF2861, M3468/Z3192, M3470/PF2865, M3471/PF2866, M3472/PF2867, M3473/PF2868, M3474/PF2869, M3476/PF2873, M3477/PF2875, M3478/PF2876, M3479/PF2877, M3481/PF2880, M3482/PF2884, M3485/PF2888, M3486/PF2889, M3487/PF2890, M3489/Z3215, M3490/PF2894, M3494/Z3226, M3495/PF2902, M3496/Z3229, M3497/Z3230, M3498/PF2921, M3502/Z3302, M3507/PF2932, M3514/PF3265, M3560/PF3012, M3569/Z3401, M3580/PF3046, M3582/PF3049, M3583/PF3050, M3586/PF3053, M3587/PF3054, M3588/PF3057, M3589/Z6108, M3591/PF3061, M3593/PF3063, M3595/PF3065, M3596/PF3068, M3597/PF3069, M3598/Z3284, M3599/PF3070, M3600/PF3071, M3601/PF3072, M3603/PF3075, M3604/PF3076/S7530, M3605/PF3077, M3606/Z3508, M3608/PF3092, M3609/PF3094, M3619/PF3103, M3627/PF3121, M3628/PF3122, M3633/Z3561, P257/PF2950/U6, Page94/PF3137/U17, PF2788, PF2790, PF2791, PF2796, PF2802, PF2804, PF2805.1/Z2540.2, PF2806, PF2808, PF2809, PF2815, PF2816, PF2817, PF2819, PF2821, PF2831, PF2836, PF2837, PF2901, PF2907, PF2908, PF2910, PF2914, PF2915, PF2917, PF2918, PF2920, PF2952/S314/U2, PF2956/U3, PF2958/U7, PF3022, PF3045, PF3067, PF3080, PF3083, PF3087, PF3088, PF3123, PF3343, PF3134/U33, U12, U20, U21, U23, Z3067, Z3078, Z3080, Z3081, Z3085, Z3087, Z3089/S8863/Y232, Z3094, Z3095, Z3097, Z3102, Z3104, Z3117, Z3120, Z3122, Z3136, Z3144, Z3145, Z3150, Z3152, Z3166, Z3201, Z3239, Z3246, Z3247, Z3248, Z3250, Z3258/S1435, Z3262, Z3285, Z3314, Z3349, Z3400, Z3438, Z3478, Z3482, Z3485, Z3502, Z3507, Z3539, Z6040, Z6106, Z6107, Z6115, Z6121, Z6317, Z6324, Z6325, Z6472
G1   M342, CTS5933, F858, F1218, F1354, F2447, F2498, F2853, F3062, F4154, F4232, F4262, F4341, L833, M285, Z3176, Z3200, Z3208, Z3231, Z3252, Z3308, Z3322, Z3327, Z3344, Z3393, Z3419, Z17860, Z17861, Z17862, Z17863, Z17864, Z17865, Z17866, Z17867, Z17868, Z17869, Z17870, Z17872, Z17873
• • G1a   CTS11562, F1761, F2376, F4113, F4297
• • • G1a1   Z3353
• • • • G1a1a   L1324, L1325, L1327, L1414
• • • •  G1a1a1   L201, L202, L203
• • • •  G1a1a2   L1323
• • • • G1a1b   GG362/Z3189, GG371/Z3313
• • • G1a2   GG313, GG314, GG315, GG316, GG317, GG318, GG319, GG320, GG321, GG322, GG323, GG324, GG325, GG326, GG327, GG328
• • • • G1a2a   GG162, GG163, GG164, GG165, GG166, GG167, GG168, GG169, GG170, GG171, GG172, GG173, GG174, GG175, GG176, GG177, GG178, GG179, GG180, GG181, GG182, GG183, GG184, GG185, GG186, GG187, GG188, GG189, GG190, GG191, GG192, GG193, GG194, GG195, GG196, GG197, GG198, GG199, GG200, GG201, GG202, GG203, GG204, GG205, GG206, GG207, GG208, GG209, GG210, GG211, GG212, GG213, GG214, GG215, GG216, GG217, GG218, GG219, L76.2/M8964.2
• • • • G1a2b   GG265, GG266, GG267, GG268, GG269, GG270, GG271, GG272, GG273, GG274, GG275, GG276, GG277, GG278, GG279, GG280, GG281, GG282, GG283, GG284, GG285, GG286, GG287, GG288, GG289, GG290, GG291, GG292, GG293, GG294, GG295, GG296, GG297, GG298, GG299, GG300, GG301, GG302, GG303, GG304, GG305, GG306, GG307, GG308, GG309, GG310, GG311, GG312, M7601, Y2614.2
• • G1b   L830, L831, L832, L834, L835
• • • G1b1   Z17874, Z17875, Z17876
• • • • G1b1a   Z18606
• • • • G1b1b   Z30744, Z30745, Z30746
G2   P287/PF3140, CTS1491, CTS1492, CTS1868/PF2929, CTS1900/M3506/PF2931, CTS2406/M3518/PF2944, CTS2593/M3521/PF2947, CTS4136/M3527/PF2964, CTS4242/M3529/PF2967, CTS4264/M3530/PF2968, CTS4413/M3531/PF2971, CTS4703/M3533/PF2976, CTS5666/M3325/PF2986, CTS6316/M3545, CTS6692/M3548/PF2998, CTS6742/M3549/PF2999, CTS7430/M3559/PF3010, CTS7662/M3561/PF3014, CTS9885/M3573/PF3035, CTS10089/M3576/PF3038, CTS11016/M3615/PF3099, CTS11196/M3617/PF3101, F744/M3229/PF2785, F1189/M3267/PF2883, F1239/M3483/PF2886, F1294/M3484/PF2887, F1393/M3270/PF2893, F1496/M3492, F1647/PF2904, F2319/L496/M3546/PF2995, F3070/M3578/PF3042, F3198/M3584, F3220/M3592, F3226/M3594/PF3064, F3344/M3610/PF3095, F3536/M3626/PF3120, L79, L89/M3475/PF3138, L142.2, L156/PF3002, M3273/PF2895, M3276/PF2903, M3446/PF2839, M3447/PF2840, M3465/PF2860, M3469/PF2864, M3480/PF2879, M3488/PF2891, M3491/PF2897, M3493/PF2898, M3581/PF3047, M3585/PF3052, M3607/PF3091, PF2787, PF2789, PF2792, PF2794, PF2797, PF2798, PF2800, PF2803, PF2807, PF2810, PF2814, PF2820, PF2830, PF2835, PF2905, PF2909, PF2912, PF3082, PF3093, PF3119, PF3125, S13969/Z27232, Z3099, Z3042, Z3056, Z3060, Z3100, Z3112, Z3146, Z3237, Z3274, Z3303, Z3499, Z3504, Z6103/M3579, Z6105, Z6114, Z6292, Z6305, Z6474
• • G2a   P15/PF3112, CTS32/PF2779, CTS211/M3227/PF2783, CTS1879/PF2930, CTS5416/M3320, CTS6026/M3331/PF2991, CTS6314/M3334, CTS6630/M3340/PF2997, CTS6753/M3342/PF3000, CTS8673/M3358/PF3020, CTS9318/M3362/PF3026, CTS11463/M3421/PF3108, CTS11627/PF3110, F1554/PF2900, F1975/PF2969/M3307, F1980/M3309/PF2972, F2274/M3333/PF2993, F2301/M3335/PF2994, F2529/M3348/PF3013, F3088/PF3043, F3734/M3428/PF3116, F4086/M3251/PF2863, L31/PF3142/S149, L149.1, L1341, M3393/PF3056, M3397/PF3060, M3401/PF3066, M3408/PF3073, M3410/PF3078, PF2799, PF2833, PF2911, PF3034, PF3079, PF3141/U5, Z3072, Z3113, Z3114, Z3154, Z3167, Z3240, Z3249, Z3506, Z6138
• • • G2a1   FGC7535/SK1106/Z6552
• • • • G2a1a   FGC595/Z6553, FGC528/Z6528, FGC569/Z6710, FGC570/Z6567, FGC571/Z6686, FGC572/Z6593, FGC573/Z6535, FGC574/Z6564, FGC576/Z6537, FGC577/Z6539, FGC578/Z6540, FGC580/Z6526, FGC581/Z6527, FGC582/Z6543, FGC585/SK1113/Z6529, FGC586/Z6544, FGC587/Z6530, FGC588/Z6531, FGC589/Z6532, FGC590/Z6533, FGC591/Z6534, FGC592/Z6546, FGC593/Z6548, FGC594/Z6707, FGC596/Z6554, FGC597/SK1109/Z6556, FGC598/Z6559, FGC599/Z6655, FGC600/Z7993, FGC601/Z6709, FGC602/Z6562, FGC603/Z6565, FGC604/Z6568, FGC605/Z6569, FGC606/SK1107/Z6570, FGC607/Z6571, FGC608/Z6572, FGC610/Z6681, FGC611/Z6684, FGC612/Z6573, FGC613/Z6574, FGC614/Z6575, FGC615/Z6576, FGC616/Z6577, FGC617/Z6578, FGC618/Z6579, FGC620/Z6580, FGC621/Z6583, FGC622/Z6584, FGC623/Z6585, FGC624/Z6586, FGC625/Z6591, FGC626/Z6592, FGC628/Z6597, FGC630/Z6599, FGC631/Z6601, FGC632/Z6602, FGC633/Z6735, FGC634/Z6605, FGC635/Z6738, FGC636/Z6607, FGC637/Z6608, FGC638/Z6609, FGC639/Z6610, FGC640/Z6611, FGC641/Z6612, FGC642/Z6613, FGC644/Z6615, FGC655/Z6622, FGC666/Z6627, FGC673/Z6631, FGC682/Z6647, FGC688/Z6708, FGC739/Z6698, FGC754/Z6715, FGC769/Z6737, FGC1027/Z6557, FGC1028/Z6604, FGC1050/Z8009, FGC1092/Z6538, FGC3753/Z6563, FGC3756/Z6618, FGC7528/Z6713, FGC7530/Z6588, FGC7531/Z6551, FGC7533/Z6547, FGC7534/Z6590, FGC7536/Z6555, FGC7537/Z6545, FGC7538/Z6566, FGC7540/Z6525, FGC7542/SK1112/Z6594, FGC7543/Z6589, FGC7544/Z6587, FGC7545/Z6561, FGC7546/Z6606, FGC7547, FGC7581/Z6541, FGC7582/Z6719, FGC7583/Z6598, FGC7584/Z6581, L293, M7635, PF1123, SK1115/Z6582, Z6600, Z6603, Z16580
• • • •  G2a1a1   FGC693/Z6653, FGC645/Z6616, FGC667/Z6628, FGC670/Z6629, FGC699/Z6671, FGC700/Z6672, FGC703/Z6674, FGC712/Z6676, FGC714/Z6678, FGC727/Z6690, FGC741/Z6699, FGC757/SK1111/Z6717, FGC759/Z6718, FGC762/Z6725, FGC768/Z6736, FGC771/Z6739
• • • •  G2a1a1a   FGC715/Z6679, FGC701/Z16581, FGC733/Z6693, FGC1068/Z6595
• • • •  • • G2a1a1a1   Z6638, F3099, FGC3797/Z8013, FGC654/Z6633, Z6632, Z6634, Z6635, Z6637, Z6643, Z6650, Z6661, Z6670, Z6691, Z6692, Z6697, Z6706, Z6714, Z6720, Z6728, Z6734, Z8014
• • • •  • • • G2a1a1a1a   FGC713/Z6677
• • • •  • • • • G2a1a1a1a1   FGC766/Z8014, FGC671/Z6640, FGC694/Z6654, FGC713/Z6677, FGC725/Z6687, FGC734/Z6694, Z6639
• • • •  • • • •  G2a1a1a1a1a   FGC750/Z7962
• • • •  • • • •  G2a1a1a1a1a1   Z7940, FGC692, FGC750/Z7962, Z7956, Z7957, Z7958, Z7959, Z7960, Z7961, Z8008, Z8011
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a1a1a1a1a1a   Z7944
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a1a1a1a1a1a1   Z7943
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a1a1a1a1a1a1a   Z7941
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a1a1a1a1a1b   FGC719
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a1a1a1a1a1b1   Z7947, FGC677, FGC681, FGC717, FGC718, FGC723, FGC729, FGC730, FGC745, FGC756, FGC767, FGC770, FGC775, FGC777, Z7948
• • • •  • • • •  G2a1a1a1a1b   FGC1048/Z7953, FGC1049/Z7954
• • • •  • • G2a1a1a2   FGC1160, FGC1119, FGC1159
• • • •  • • • G2a1a1a2a   Z6673, FGC1123, FGC1126, FGC1132, FGC1137, FGC1147, Z6642, Z6680, Z6705
• • • •  • • • • G2a1a1a2a1   FGC1107
• • • •  G2a1a2   Z17774
• • • •  G2a1a2a   Z17775
• • • •  G2a1a3   Z31464
• • • G2a2   CTS4367/L1259/M3308/PF2970, PF2824, PF2826
• • • • G2a2a   PF3146, FGC7741/Y2377, PF3145, PF3147, PF3149, PF3150, PF3151, PF3152, PF3159, PF3161, PF3165, PF3166, PF3167, PF3168, PF3172, PF3174, PF3175, PF3176, PF3179, PF3180, PF3181, PF3182, PF3184, PF3185, PF3186, PF6827, S16017/Z6279, S22816/Z6479, Z5056, Z6124, Z6127, Z6178, Z6278, Z6280, Z6281, Z6311, Z6482, Z12225
• • • •  G2a2a1   PF3148, FGC2264/Y1770, FGC2268/S23993/Y1771, FGC2270/Y1772, FGC6592/Y1774, PF3155, PF3156, PF3160, PF3163, PF3170, PF3171, S11510/Z6199, S11769/Z6201, S15710/Z6042, S17801/Z6286, Z6122, Z6304, Z6307, Z6308, Z6313, Z6314, Z6491, Z12217, Z12224.1
• • • •  G2a2a1a   PF3177
• • • •  • • G2a2a1a1   M286
• • • •  • • G2a2a1a2   L91/PF3246/S285
• • • •  • • • G2a2a1a2a   PF3239, CTS3850/Z2051, FGC5668, FGC5676, FGC5681, PF3231, PF3240, PF3247, Z6043, Z6123, Z6126, Z6129, Z6130, Z6132, Z6200, Z6277, Z6283, Z6303, Z6312, Z6476, Z6477, Z6486, Z6490, Z6492
• • • •  • • • • G2a2a1a2a1   L166, FGC5671, FGC5673, FGC5687, FGC5696, FGC5721, L167, PF3178, PF6846, Z1370.2, Z6134, Z6206, Z6207, Z6209, Z6213, Z6215, Z6219, Z6220, Z6287, Z6493, Z6499, Z6516, Z12228, Z12229, Z12230
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2a1a2a1a   FGC5672
• • • •  • • • G2a2a1a2b   FGC2315
• • • • G2a2b   L30/PF3267/S126, L32/PF3266/S148/U8, L190/M485, PF2811
• • • •  G2a2b1   M406/PF3285, FGC5068, FGC5079/S14640/Y2720, FGC5085/Z6859, FGC5086/Y2726/Z6860, FGC5088/S24367/Y2728/Z6861, M461/M3372, M3249/PF3287, M3268.1/PF3292.1, M3269/S11812, M3281/PF3297, M3295/S16240, M3297/S16504, M3298/S16510, M3305, M3312/PF3300, M3314/PF3301, M3315, M3317, M3318/S17625, M3319/S17953, M3323/PF3304, M3329/S18391, M3332/S18793, M3344/PF3307, M3351/S20021, M3360/S21036, M3366/PF3312, M3377/S22095, M3382/PF3315, M3413, M3414/S24510, M3418/S24848, M3423/PF3319, M9330/S23266, M9345/S23815, S14332
• • • •  G2a2b1a   L14/Page57/S130/U16, L90/Page19/S133
• • • •  G2a2b1b   L645
• • • •  G2a2b1c   PF3293
• • • •  • • G2a2b1c1   PF3296, PF3316
• • • •  G2a2b1d   M3302
• • • •  G2a2b1d1   M3422
• • • •  • • G2a2b1d1a   M3240
• • • •  G2a2b2   CTS2488, CTS1891/PF3264, CTS8143/PF3324, CTS9605, CTS9957/PF3325, F2121/PF3323, L141.1, PF2818, PF3275
• • • •  G2a2b2a   P303/Page108/PF3340/S135/Z765, CTS688, CTS946, CTS1949/PF3334/Z1820, CTS4454/PF3335, CTS6719/PF3336/Z763, CTS10366/PF3338, CTS10725/PF3344, Page98/Z766, PF3329, PF3330, PF3332, PF3333, PF3339, PF3342, Z3077, Z3084, Z3142, Z3243, Z3481, Z6109, Z6136, Z6323
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a1   L140/S316, CTS796, CTS12570, CTS12891/PF3347, PF2823, PF3331, PF3337/Z764, PF3345, PF3346, Z3065, Z3155, Z3220, Z3351, Z3517
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1a   U1, Z6779
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1a1   L13/S131/U13, L78/M527, CTS601/PF6854/Z1993, CTS4672/Z2013, FGC947/Z2027, Z2005
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a1a   CTS9909/Z2022, CTS417/Z1991, Z2014
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a1a1   Z2003
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1a1a1a   Z29424, Z29425
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1a1a1a1   L1263
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1a1a1a2   Z30780
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1a1a1b   Z2017
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1a2   L1266, FGC21516, FGC21522, FGC21528, FGC21539/Y12287, SK1786/S18967, S18054, S20142, S21397, S22673, S24601, S25468, Z6390, Z6392
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a2a   L1264, L1265, L1268
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1a2a1   L654.2
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b   L497/S317, CTS1899/PF6851/Z738, CTS5351/Z746, CTS7111/Z748, CTS8596/Z751, CTS12867, PF6850/Z728, PF6852/Z754, S11313/Z3207, S11738/Z3212, S26003/Z3528, Z730, Z731, Z733, Z736, Z744, Z749, Z756, Z1818, Z1822, Z3008, Z3390/S20969, Z3480, Z6379
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1   CTS9737/Z1815, CTS730, CTS7012, S19395/Z6380, Z729, Z735, Z758, Z760, Z1900, Z3035, Z3195, Z3205, Z6900, Z6901
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a   Z725, CTS11352/Z759, FGC469/Z16776, Z727, Z1817
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1   Z3158
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a1a   L43/S147, Z27265, Z30640
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1a1   L42/S146. S12047, Z30641, Z30642
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1a1a   F1300.2/M1809.2
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b   CTS6796/Z726
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b1   CTS4803
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b1a   S2808
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b1a1   CTS10391, S23438
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b1a2   FGC14522
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b1a3   Z17780, Z17783
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b1b   Z6150
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b1b1   Z17787, Z17792
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b2   Z16775
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b2a   Z16770, Z16771, Z16672, Z16773, Z16777, Z17394
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b2a1   Z34079
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b2a1a   Z34083, Z34084, Z34085
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a1b2a2   Z31842
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1b1a1b2b   Z27567
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1a2   Z6748, FGC496.2/Z6749.2, Z6750
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1b   S10458
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1b1b1    Z31358, Z31359
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1c   CTS342
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c1   Z724, CTS6325, CTS8476/PF6867, Y367/Z3511, Y368/Z3512
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a   CTS5990/Z1903, CTS77, CTS2073, CTS4472, CTS6763, CTS7045, CTS7155, CTS7658, CTS11388, FGC287/Y370, PF6851, PF6863, PF6865, PF6866, Y277/Z3179, Z2047, Z2048, Z3033, Z3038, Z3040, Z3055, Z3057, Z3064, Z3066, Z3073, Z3082, Z3133, Z3137, Z3139, Z3162, Z3171, Z3177, Z3193, Z3219, Z3234, Z3236, Z3263, Z3265, Z3312, Z3332, Z3380, Z3381, Z3388, Z3396, Z3410, Z3423, Z3435, Z3440, Z3445, Z3530, Z6140, Z6141, Z6162, Z6296, Z6297, Z6319, Z6320, Z6321, Z6322, Z6521, Z6522, Z6524
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a1   L640, CTS1934, CTS2762, CTS3426, CTS9329, CTS12069, FGC333, FGC334/Y90, FGC335, FGC337, FGC338/Y74, FGC340, FGC341, FGC346, FGC7497, FGC7499, Z3029, Z3294, Z3307, Z3315, Z3373, Z3434, Z3574, Z3576, Z3577, Z3579, Z3580, Z5853, Z5854, Z5855, Z6021, Z6044, Z6045, Z6096, Z6097, Z6098, Z6100, Z6102, Z6112, Z6142, Z6550, Z16492, Z16498, Z17857, Z17858, Z17859
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1c1a1a   Y88/Z3520
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1c1a1a1   FGC348, FGC349
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a2   Z3428, Z3292
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1c1a2a   Z26414, Z27234
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1c1a2a1   FGC7477/Z6523, Z27232
• • • •  • • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c1a2a1a   FGC249
• • • •  • • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c1a2a1a1   FGC263
• • • •  • • • •  • • • G2a2b2a1c1a2a2   Z22644
• • • •  • • • •  • • G2a2b2a1c1a2b   Z3571, Z3572
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c2   FGC12126, FGC12121/Z16237, FGC12129, FGC12130, FGC12135, FGC12138, FGC12145, FGC12152, FGC12156, FGC12159, FGC12175, Z16667
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c2a   L660, L662
• • • •  • • • •  G2a2b2a1c2b   Z16670
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2a1c3   PF4202
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a2   L694
• • • •  • • G2a2b2a3   M278
• • • •  G2a2b2b   PF3359, CTS5434/PF3392, F705/PF3348, F795/PF3354, F1006/PF3260, F1175, F1429/PF3365, F1581/PF3367, F1629/PF3368, F1760/PF3377, F2037, F2419/PF3400, F3041/PF3414, PF3321, PF3404, PF3418, F3425/PF3431, PF3432, FGC7257, FGC7260, PF3326, PF3375, PF3388, PF3395, PF3396, PF3413, PF3417, Z6171, Z12223
• • • •  • • G2a2b2b1   F1193/PF3362, F1705/PF3322, PF3430
• • • •  • • • G2a2b2b1a   F872/PF3355, F935/PF3356, F1079, F1338, F1671, F1932/PF3383, F2020, F2291/Z6442, F2537/PF3402, F3282, PF3369, PF3394, PF3401, PF3419, PF3434.2
• • • •  • • • • G2a2b2b1a1   PF3378, PF2829, PF3252, PF3349, PF3358, PF3379, PF3385,PF3386, PF3390, PF3391, PF3393, PF3398, PF3405, PF3412,PF3423, PF3433
• • G2b   M3115, FGC7836/Z8020, M3145, M3191, PF1343, PF5721.2 Z8015, Z8016, Z8017, Z8018, Z8019, Z8021
• • • G2b1   M377, L72/S315, L183
• • • • G2b1a   FGC32402/Y12976
• • • • G2b1b   M283
• • • G2b2   FGC2996, FGC3022, FGC3023, FGC3029, FGC3073, FGC3095, FGC3108, FGC3111, FGC3145, FGC3148, Z37342
• • • • G2b2a   Z8022, Z8024

Private SNPs - After having been investigated, these SNPs have not met the population distribution criteria for placement on the tree. Either too few confirmed positive testers have been found OR multiple confirmed testers were confined to either a single surname or to a small group of related males.

SNPs under Investigation - Additional testing is needed to confirm adequate positive samples and/or correct placement on the tree.

NOTES:

Y-DNA haplogroup G.  Scholars have proposed dates ranging from 10,000 to 23,000 years ago for the origin of this group using STR marker differences as the basis of their calculations. (Cinnioglu, Genographic Project site, Semino). Counting the differences in numbers of SNP mutations, one study (Wei) suggested that haplogroups more recent than haplogroup F (including G) had "a rapid expansion" dated at 41,000-52,000 years ago. Another study showed that haplogroup G was the first branching from haplogroup F among haplogroups G to T (Poznik). And this latter study — again counting SNP mutations — calculated about the same time frame for the emergence of haplogroup G based on its proportional branch length within its figure 2 which calculated the common male ancestor of all living men as living 120,000 to 156,000 years ago. A final study (Francalacci) which calibrated its calculations according to the first settlement of Sardinia gave an estimated age for haplogroup G as a separate branch as 76,670 years (mean number of mutations of 374 multiplied by 205 years per mutation, according to their data).

Researchers have also suggested various places in western Asia as the site of origin of G, but the lack of ancient DNA from that period makes confirmation of this difficult. Aunitary concept of haplogroup G often has little practical importance because virtually all G men belong to G subgroups that arose much more recently and have differing geographical distributions.

These are the most common G subgroups:

G1-M285 is a much less common form of G found in populations than is G2. All haplogroup G1 men so far have the 12 value at marker DYS392 — rarely seen in G except in G1 men (G project data). G1 reaches parity with G2 only in parts of Iran reaching there up to 5 percent of all men. G1 is far less common in Europe, North Africa and Asia (G Project data, Cinnioglu, Regueiro, and DYS392=12 G1 estimates from Adams, El-Sabai, Ferri, Ghiani, Heber, Lovrecic, Nasidze-YHRD data from 3 studies, Rodriguez, Sengupta, Zalloua-2 studies). A Kazakh, a Middle Eastern and two Ashkenazi Jewish G1 subgroups exist (Biro, G project data). Using STR marker differences, Rootsi calculated the expansion time of M285 as 19,271 years ± 6,158 years.

G2a1a-FGC595/Z6553.  All G2a1 (FGC595/Z6553) men so far have the 10 value at marker DYS392 — rarely seen in G except in FGC595/Z6553 men. The subgroup P16 is found in high percentages in the central Caucasus Mountains area and is rare elsewhere. Small clusters are found among Ashkenazi Jews, some eastern Europeans and among Maronite Christians in Lebanon (Nasidze data in YHRD database, G project, Haber, Balanovsky and data). The Rootsi study — using STR marker differences — calculated the coalescence age estimate for P16 at 9,400 years ago.

G2a2a-PF3146 men are found scattered throughout southwest and southern Asia and, though rare in Europe, reach observable levels in Corsica and Sardinia (Keller, Francalacci, G Project data). A double value for DYS19 in G is found almost exclusively within G2a2a though men with the same double value will not be reported as such. G2a2a includes Oetzi, the Iceman mummy preserved for over 5000 years in the Italian Alps (Keller).

G2a2b1-M406 occurs in highest frequency in the eastern Mediterranean area reaching up to 5 percent of all men. A high percentage of M406 men have a value of 21 at marker DYS390 which is rare in G otherwise. M406 is more common in southern Europe than in northern Europe. A distinctive Ashkenazi Jewish subgroup of M406 exists (King, Rootsi, G project and Cinnioglu data). One study using STR marker differences calculated the expansion time for M406 in Anatolia at 12,800 years ago (Rootsi).

G2a2b2a1-L140 is the dominant G group in Europe (perhaps 80 percent of G samples) and may reach up to about 7 percent of all men in a country but averages about 3 percent. A high percentage of G2a2b2a1 samples form three major subgroups, Z725+ (DYS388=13 and predominantly CTS4803+), Z2022+ (YCA=20,21) and Z1903+ (DYS568=9). One U1 subgroup within L140 (L1266) is the only L140 subgroup confirmed in some frequency outside Europe and that only in the Caucasus region, particularly in the northwest (G Project, Balanovsky, Rootsi data). North of the European borders of the once Roman Empire, the prevalence of these three L140 subgroups (and G in general) drops considerably, and the three subgroups are found in noticeable amounts in almost all regions of the once Roman Empire in Europe except among the Basques of Spain. An Ashkenazi Jewish cluster from northeastern Europe comprises about half of the Z1903 subgroup, and this Jewish subgroup represents an exception to usual European boundaries mentioned. An unusual concentration of Z1903 men occurs in Sardinia, and a high concentration of L497 was also found in isolated valleys of southwestern Austria. The connection of the three main L140 subgroups to Sea Peoples, Etruscans, Alans and Sarmatians and other groups who migrated to Europe is widely debated. Using differences in STR marker value differences, Rootsi calculated the expansion time of the Z2022 subgroup as 7,100 years ± 2,300 years and 10,870 years ± 3,029 years for L497 in central Europe (All info from Berger, miscellaneous L140 data from Adams, Rootsi, Francalacci and over 2,000 L140 samples in G project).

G2a2b2b-CTS5434/PF3392 is found in noticeable numbers so far only in Sardinia (Francalacci data).

G2b1-M377. Available M377 samples are either (a) those from Ashkenazi Jewish men from northeast Europe who have a null value for marker DYS425 or (b) a small number of men from the Mediterranean areas and Armenia, and more noticeably from Afghanistan, Pakistan and among Indian Pathans (Sengupta and G Project data). Using STR marker differences Rootsi calculated a coalescence estimate of 5,600 years ago for M377 men, though the age of the M377 is certainly much older.

References:

Adams et al, The Genetic Legacy of Religious Diversity and Intolerance: Paternal Lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83(6): 725-36, 2008.
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. (available by subscription) European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Athey et al, Y-SNP rs34134567 Defines a Large Subgroup of Haplogroup G2a-P15. (pdf) Journal of Genetic Genealogy, 4(2):149-150, 2008.
Balanovsky et al, Deep Phylogenetic Analysis of Haplogroup G1 Provides Estimates of SNP and STR Mutation Rates on the Human Y-Chromosome and Reveals Migrations of Iranic Speakers. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0122968. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0122968, 2015.
Balanovsky et al, Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13 May 2011.
Behar et al, Contrasting Patterns of Y Chromosome Variation in Ashkenazi Jewish and Host Non-Jewish European Populations. (pdf) Hum Genet 114:354-365, 2004.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Berger et al, High Resolution Mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria). Forensic Science International: Genetics, 7(5), 529-36, 2013.
Bertoncini et al, The Dual Origin of Tati-speakers from Dagestan as Written in the Genealogy of Uniparental Variants. (abstract) American Journal of Human Biology, Volume 24, Issue 4, pages 391-399, July/August 2012.
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
El Sibai et al, Geographical Structure of the Y-Chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A Coastal Inland Contrast, Annals of Human Genetics, 73:568-81, 2009. (abstract)
Francalacci et al, Low-Pass DNA Sequencing of 1200 Sardinians Reconstructs European Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. Science: Vol. 341 no. 6145, pp. 565-569, DOI: 10.1126/science.1237947, 2 August 2013.
Ghiani et al, Population data for Y-chromosome haplotypes defined by AmpFlSTR YFiler PCR amplification kit in North Sardinia (Italy), Collegium Antropologicum, 33 (2): 643-51, 2009.
Haber et al, Influences of History, Geography, and Religion on Genetic Structure: the Maronites in Lebanon, European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(3): 334-40, 2010.
Herrera et al, Neolithic Patrilineal Signals Indicate that the Armenian Plateau was Repopulated by Agriculturalists. European Journal of Human Genetics, 10.1038/ejhg.2011.192, 2011.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Keller et al, New Insights into the Tyrolean Iceman's Origin and Phenotype as Inferred by Whole-genome Sequencing. Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1701, 2023.
King et al, The Coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-Chromosome Models of Archaic Greek Colonization of the Western Mediterranean, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 69, 2011.
King et al, Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic., Annals of Human Genetics, 72:205-214, 2008.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72: 313-332, 2003.
Nasidze et al, Genetic Evidence Concerning the Origins of the South and North Ossetians. (pdf) Annals of Human Genetics, 68: 588-599, 2004.
Nasidze et al, MtDNA and Y-chromosome Variation in Kurdish Groups. (abstract) Annals of Human Genetics, 69: 401-412, 2005.
Nasidze et al, Testing Hypotheses of Language Replacement in the Caucasus: Evidence from the Y-chromosome, Human Genetics 112 (3): 255-61, 2003.
Olalde et al, Genomic Analysis of the Blood Attributed to Louis XVI (1754–1793), King of France., Scientific Reports, 4, Article number: 4666, doi:10.1038/srep04666, 2014.
Poznik et al, Sequencing Y Chromosomes Resolves Discrepancy in Time to Common Ancestor of Males Versus Females. (abstract) Science, 341 (6145): 562-5. 2013.
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Rootsi et al, Distinguishing the Co-Ancestries of Haplogroup G Y-Chromosomes in the Populations of Europe and the Caucasus. Abstract. European Journal of Human Genetics, (e-pub 16 May 2012 ahead of print), pp 1-8.
Semino et al, Ethiopians and Khoisan Share the Deepest Clades of the Human Y-Chromosome Phylogeny. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70: 265-268, 2002.
Sengupta et al, Polarity and Temporality of High Resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 78: 202-221, 2006.
Shen et al, Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli Populations from Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation. (pdf) Human Mutation, 24: 248-260, 2004.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2006). Differentiation of sub-populations within Y-SNP haplogroup G, (poster citation - not available online) Forensic Science Society, Autumn Conference, Wyboston, UK, November 3-5, 2006.
Sims L M, Garvey D, Ballantyne J (2009). Improved Resolution Haplogroup G Phylogeny in the Y Chromosome, Revealed by a Set of Newly Characterized SNPs. (pdf) PLoS One, 4: 6, e5792, 2009.
Valone et al, Y SNP Typing of African-American and Caucasian Samples Using Allele-Specific Hybridization and Primer Extension. (pdf) Journal of Forensic Science, 49: 4, July 2004.
Wei et al, A Calibrated Human Y-Chromosomal Phylogeny Based on Resequencing. Genome Research, 23(2): 388-95, 2013.
Zalloua et al, Identifying Genetic Traces of Historic Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean, American Journal of Human Genetics, 83: 633-42, 2008.
Zalloua et al, Y Chromosome Diversity in Lebanon is Structured by Recent Historical Events. (abstract) The American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Issue 4, 873-882, 28 March 2008.
Zhao et al, Presence of Three Different Paternal Lineages among North Indians: A Study of 560 Y Chromosomes. (abstract) Annals of Human Biology, 36(1): 46-59, 2009.

Additional Resources:
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) Project, Ray Banks, Paul Givargidze, Rolf Langland, Whit Athey.
Haplogroup G Project, Ray Banks.
Haplogroup G2b-M377 / L72 / L183 / M283 Y Haplogroup Project (formerly G2c), Ted Kandell.

Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2015:

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